Dhritarāshtra said: Gathered on the holy plain of Kurukshetra, O Sanjaya, what did my sons and the sons of Pāndu, eager to fight, do? Sanjaya said: Having seen the army of the sons of Pāndu arrayed, King Duryodhana then approached the preceptor (Drona), and spoke (these) words: Behold, O preceptor, this vast army of the Pāndavas arrayed by the son of Drupada, your gifted disciple.

Sanjaya said: To him thus overcome with pity and grieving, with eyes filled with tears and agitated, Madhusudana spoke these words: The Blessed Lord said: Whence, O Arjuna, has this weakness, not entertained by honourable men (Aryans), nor conducive to (the attainment of) heaven, and leading to ill-fame, come on you at this crisis? Yield not to inmanliness, O Pārtha.

Arjuna said: If in Your opinion, O Janārdana, knowledge is superior to action, then why do You, O Keshava, engage me in this terrific action? By (these) apparently conflicting words You seem to confuse my understanding; tell (me) definitely that one thing by which I can attain final beatitude. The Blessed Lord said: O sinless one (Arjuna), a twofold faith has been declared by Me earlier.

The Blessed Lord Said: This eternal Yoga I taught to Vivaswat, Vivaswat taught it to Manu and Manu taught it to Ikshvāku. This (Yoga), thus traditionally handed down, the royal sages knew. Through the great lapse of time this Yoga is lost in this world. That very ancient Yoga has been taught by Me to you this day, since you are My devotee and friend;

Arjuna said: O Krishna, You teach renunciation of actions and again action; tell (me) decisively which is good for me. The Blessed Lord said: Renunciation and the performance of (selfless) action both lead to Liberation; but of the two the performance of (selfless) action is superior to the renunciation of action. He who neither dislikes nor desires should be known as a perpetual renouncer of action;

The Blessed Lord said: He, who does the prescribed work without caring for its fruit, is a Sannyāsi as also a Yogi, and not he who is without the (sacred) fire and without action. Know that which is extolled as Sannyāsa, to be Yoga, O Pāndava (Arjuna). Verily, no one becomes a Yogi without renouncing desire for the fruit of action.

The true nature of the Self that is to be known has been declared together with Yoga. Now is being described the Divine Form that is to be worshipped. Listen how, with the mind intent on Me, taking refuge in Me, and practicing Yoga you will know Me in full, free from doubt. About this knowledge (Jnāna) together with realization (Vijnāna), knowing which there remains nothing.

Those whose mind is fixed on Sri Krishna alone know the Brahman, action, Adhibhuta, etc. – the Brahman, action, etc., mentioned thus (in the last chapter) are clearly explained in the eighth (chapter). Arjuna said: What is that Brahman, what is Adhyātma, and what is action, O best of men? What is called Adhibhuta and what is said to be the Adhidaiva?

In the eighth (chapter) it has been established that the Lord is attained by pure devotion. Now in the ninth His most wonderful glory is being delineated. The Blessed Lord said: To you who are not cavilling, I shall teach this most secret knowledge in particular, coupled with realization, knowing which you will be freed from evil.This is royal knowledge, directly experienced, righteous, easy to practice and imperishable.

The glories of the Lord have previously been stated in brief in chapters seven, etc. In the tenth these are being expanded for the vision of God in everything. The Blessed Lord said: Hear again, O mighty-armed one, My supreme word, which I, wishing your welfare, shall tell you who take delight in it. I am the cause of the gods and the great sages in all respects.