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Śrimad Bhagavad Gīta | Chapter 17

ŚRIMAD BHAGAVAD GĪTA
CHAPTER 17
THE SEPARATION OF THE THREE KINDS OF FAITH


Chapter XVII,verse...

CHAPTERS: ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18


Among the causes described above leading to the fitness for
true knowledge, the Sāttvika faith is the foremost. Therefore in
the seventeenth chapter the threefold secondary differentiation
of faith is being stated.

अथ सप्तदशोऽध्यायः । श्रद्धात्रयविभागयोगः
atha saptadaśo' dhyāyaḥ | śraddhātrayavibhāgayogaḥ

Thus the Seventeenth Chapter |
The Separation of the Three Kinds of Faith

1.

अर्जुन उवाच ।
ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।
तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः ॥ १७- १ ॥

arjuna uvāca:
ye śāstravidhimutsṛjya yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ |
teṣāṃ niṣṭhā tu kā kṛṣṇa sattvamāho rajastamaḥ ||

Arjuna said:
Those who setting aside the ordinances of the Scriptures
perform sacrifices with faith (Shraddhā) – What is their
status, O Krishna? Is it Sattva, or Rajas, or Tamas?

2.

श्रीभगवानुवाच ।
त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा ।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु ॥ १७- २ ॥

śrībhagavānuvāca:
trividhā bhavati śraddhā dehināṃ sā svabhāvajā |
sāttvikī rājasī caiva tāmasī ceti tāṃ śṛṇu ||

The Blessed Lord Said:
Threefold is that natural faith of embodied beings –
Sāttvika, Rājasika or Tāmasika. Hear about it.

3.

सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत ।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः ॥ १७- ३ ॥

sattvānurūpā sarvasya śraddhā bhavati bhārata |
śraddhāmayo'yaṃ puruṣo yo yacchraddhaḥ sa eva saḥ ||

The faith of each person is according to his stuff, O
descendant of Bharata. A man is made up of his faith:
he verily is what his faith is.

4.

यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान्यक्षरक्षांसि राजसाः ।
प्रेतान्भूतगणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः ॥ १७- ४ ॥

yajante sāttvikā devānyakṣarakṣāṃsi rājasāḥ |
pretānbhūtagaṇāṃścānye yajante tāmasā janāḥ ||

The Sāttvika worship the gods, the Rājasika (worship) the
Yakshas and Rākshasas, while others, the Tāmasika men,
worship spirits and goblins.

5.-6.

अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः ।
दम्भाहंकारसंयुक्ताः कामरागबलान्विताः ॥ १७- ५ ॥

कर्षयन्तः शरीरस्थं भूतग्राममचेतसः ।
मां चैवान्तःशरीरस्थं तान्विद्ध्यासुरनिश्चयान् ॥ १७- ६ ॥

aśāstravihitaṃ ghoraṃ tapyante ye tapo janāḥ |
dambhāhaṃkārasaṃyuktāḥ kāmarāgabalānvitāḥ ||

karṣayantaḥ śarīrasthaṃ bhūtagrāmamacetasaḥ |
māṃ caivāntaḥśarīrasthaṃ tānviddhyāsuraniścayān ||

Those men who practice severe austerities not
enjoined by the Scriptures, being given to ostentation
and self – conceit, possessed of desire, attachment and
pertinacity, and senseless, torture the elements in the
body, as also Me residing within it – know them to be of
demoniac resolves.

7.

आहारस्त्वपि सर्वस्य त्रिविधो भवति प्रियः ।
यज्ञस्तपस्तथा दानं तेषां भेदमिमं शृणु ॥ १७- ७ ॥

āhārastvapi sarvasya trividho bhavati priyaḥ |
yajñastapastathā dānaṃ teṣāṃ bhedamimaṃ śṛṇu ||

The food also liked by each is threefold, as also sacrifice,
austerity and gift. Listen about these distinctions among them.

8.

आयुःसत्त्वबलारोग्यसुखप्रीतिविवर्धनाः ।
रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः ॥ १७- ८ ॥

āyuḥsattvabalārogyasukhaprītivivardhanāḥ |
rasyāḥ snigdhāḥ sthirā hṛdyā āhārāḥ sāttvikapriyāḥ ||

The foods that augment life, energy, strength, health,
happiness and joy, and which are savoury, oleaginous,
nourishing and agreeable, are liked by the Sāttvika.

9.

कट्वम्ललवणात्युष्णतीक्ष्णरूक्षविदाहिनः ।
आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः ॥ १७- ९ ॥

kaṭvamlalavaṇātyuṣṇatīkṣṇarūkṣavidāhinaḥ |
āhārā rājasasyeṣṭā duḥkhaśokāmayapradāḥ ||

The foods that are very bitter, sour, salty, hot, pungent,
dry and burning are liked by the Rājasika and are
productive of pain, grief and disease.

10.

यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत् ।
उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ॥ १७- १० ॥

yātayāmaṃ gatarasaṃ pūti paryuṣitaṃ ca yat |
ucchiṣṭamapi cāmedhyaṃ bhojanaṃ tāmasapriyam ||

The food that is pretty cold, worthless, putrid, stale,
partly eaten and impure is liked by the Tamasika.

11.

अफलाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते ।
यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः ॥ १७- ११ ॥

aphalāṅkṣibhiryajño vidhidṛṣṭo ya ijyate |
yaṣṭavyameveti manaḥ samādhāya sa sāttvikaḥ ||

That sacrifice which is performed according to scriptural
injunctions by men desiring no fruit and with their mind
fixed on it for its own sake is Sāttvika.

12.

अभिसन्धाय तु फलं दम्भार्थमपि चैव यत् ।
इज्यते भरतश्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम् ॥ १७- १२ ॥

abhisaṃdhāya tu phalaṃ dambhārthamapi caiva yat |
ijyate bharataśreṣṭha taṃ yajñaṃ viddhi rājasam ||

But know that sacrifice to be Rājasika, O best of the Bharatas,
which is performed aiming at its fruit, as also for ostentation.

13.

विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम् ।
श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ॥ १७- १३ ॥

vidhihīnamasṛṣṭānnaṃ mantrahīnamadakṣiṇam |
śraddhāvirahitaṃ yajñaṃ tāmasaṃ paricakṣate ||

The sacrifice which is contrary to ordinance, in which no
food is distributed, which is devoid of Mantras, gifts to the
priests and faith, is said to be Tāmasika.

14.

देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम् ।
ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते ॥ १७- १४ ॥

devadvijaguruprājñapūjanaṃ śaucamārjavam |
brahmacaryamahiṃsā ca śārīraṃ tapa ucyate ||

Worship of the gods, the twice-born, the preceptor and
the wise, purity, straightforwardness, continence and non-injury,
are said to be physical austerity.

15.

अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत् ।
स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते ॥ १७- १५ ॥

anudvegakaraṃ vākyaṃ satyaṃ priyahitaṃ ca yat |
svādhyāyābhyasanaṃ caiva vāṅmayaṃ tapa ucyate ||

Speech that causes no worry and is also truthful, agreeable
and beneficial, as also study of the Vedas, are said to be
verbal austerity.

16.

मनः प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः ।
भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते ॥ १७- १६ ॥

manaḥ prasādaḥ saumyatvaṃ maunamātmavinigrahaḥ |
bhāvasaṃśuddhirityetattapo mānasamucyate ||

Serenity of mind, kindliness, silence, self-control
and purity of heart, are said to be mental austerity.

17.

श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः ।
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते ॥ १७- १७ ॥

śraddhayā parayā taptaṃ tapastattrividhaṃ naraiḥ |
aphalākāṅkṣibhiryuktaiḥ sāttvikaṃ paricakṣate ||

This threefold austerity practiced with great faith by men
who desire no fruit and are steadfast, is said to be Sāttvika.

18.

सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत् ।
क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम् ॥ १७- १८ ॥

satkāramānapūjārthaṃ tapo dambhena caiva yat |
kriyate tadiha proktaṃ rājasaṃ calamadhruvam ||

That austerity which is practiced to gain respect, honour
and adoration, and that with ostentation, and which is
transitory and unstable, is here said to be Rājasika.

19.

मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः ।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥ १७- १९ ॥

mūḍhagrāheṇātmano yatpīḍayā kriyate tapaḥ |
parasyotsādanārthaṃ vā tattāmasamudāhṛtam ||

That austerity which is practiced out of a foolish notion,
with self-torture, or for the purpose of ruining another, is
called Tāmasika.

20.

दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे ।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम् ॥ १७- २० ॥

dātavyamiti yaddānaṃ dīyate'nupakāriṇe |
deśe kāle ca pātre ca taddānaṃ sāttvikaṃ smṛtam ||

To give is a duty – a gift given with this idea to one who
will do no service in return, in a fit place and time and to
a worthy person, is known to be Sāttvika.

21.

यत्तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः ।
दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥ १७- २१ ॥

yattu prattyupakārārthaṃ phalamuddiśya vā punaḥ |
dīyate ca parikliṣṭaṃ taddānaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam ||

That gift, however, which is given with a view to receiving
in return, or looking for its fruit, or grudgingly, is said to
be Rājasika.

22.

अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते ।
असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥ १७- २२ ॥

adeśakāle yaddānamapātrebhyaśca dīyate |
asatkṛtamavajñātaṃ tattāmasamudāhṛtam ||

The gift that is given at the wrong place and time and to unworthy
persons, without regard and disdainfully, is said to be Tāmasika.

23.

ॐतत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः ।
ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा ॥ १७- २३ ॥

OMtatsaditi nirdeśo brahmaṇastrividhaḥ smṛtaḥ |
brāhmaṇāstena vedāśca yajñāśca vihitāḥ purā ||

‘Om Tat Sat’ – this is considered to be the threefold
designation of Brahman. By that were fashioned, of old
the Brāhmanas, the Vedas and sacrifices.

24.

तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः ।
प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम् ॥ १७- २४ ॥

tasmādomityudāhṛtya yajñadānatapaḥkriyāḥ |
pravartante vidhānoktāḥ satataṃ brahmavādinām ||

Therefore the acts of sacrifice, gift and austerity enjoyed
by the ordinance, on the part of the followers of the Vedas,
by uttering the word ‘Om’, are always begun well.

25.

तदित्यनभिसन्धाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः ।
दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः ॥ १७- २५ ॥

tadityanabhisaṃdhāya phalaṃ yajñatapaḥkriyāḥ |
dānakriyāśca vividhāḥ kriyante mokṣakāṅkṣibhiḥ ||

Uttering ‘Tat’, the various acts of sacrifice, austerity and
charity are performed by the seekers of Liberation without
aiming at their fruit.

26.

सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्येतत्प्रयुज्यते ।
प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते ॥ १७- २६ ॥

sadbhāve sādhubhāve ca sadityetatprayujyate |
praśaste karmaṇi tathā sacchabdaḥ pārtha yujyate ||

‘Sat’ is used to denote existence and goodness; so also,
O Pārtha, the word ‘Sat’ is used for any auspicious act.

27.

यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते ।
कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते ॥ १७- २७ ॥

yajñe tapasi dāne ca sthitiḥ saditi cocyate |
karma caiva tadarthīyaṃ sadityevābhidhīyate ||

Steadiness in sacrifice, austerity and gift is also called
‘Sat’; as also work even done indirectly for the sake of the
Lord is verily called ‘Sat’.

28.

अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् ।
असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह ॥ १७- २८ ॥

aśraddhayā hutaṃ dattaṃ tapastaptaṃ kṛtaṃ ca yat |
asadityucyate pārtha na ca tatprepya no iha ||

Offering oblations, making gifts, austerities practised,
or anything else done – without faith, are called ‘Asat’
O Pārtha; they fructify neither hereafter nor here.

One who renounces Rājasika and Tāmasika faith and takes
recourse to Sāttvika faith, is fit for realization of the Truth – this
is established in the seventeenth chapter.

ॐ तत्सदिति श्रीमद्भगवद्गीतासूपनिषत्सु
ब्रह्मविद्यायां योगशास्त्रे श्रीकृष्णार्जुनसंवादे
श्रद्धात्रयविभागयोगो नाम सप्तदशोऽध्यायः ॥ १७ ॥

OM tatsaditi śrīmad bhagavadgītāsūpaniṣatsu
brahmavidyāyāṃ yogaśāstre śrīkṛṣṇārjunasaṃvāde
śraddhātrayavibhāgayogo nāma saptadaśo'dhyāyaḥ