Buddhism Philosophy & Teachings

Schools of Buddhism | Introduction

We will give next a general historical account of the chief branches of Buddhist thought in India such as Vaibhasikas, Sautrantikas, Yogacaras and Madhyamikas and briefly show their relation to the central teachings of the Buddha such as three fundamental principles of Impermanence (anitya), Sorrow (duhkha), and Non-self (anātman).

Buddhism: Overview

Buddhism is the world’s oldest missionary religion. Since its beginnings some 2,500 years ago in northern India, it has spread to nearly every region of the world. There are now more than 350 million Buddhists in the world, most of whom belong to one or the other of the 2 major schools: the Mahayana and the Theravada. Buddhist core philosophical tenets and beliefs include Karma,...

Buddhism: History

Buddhist tradition holds that the man who would become the Buddha was born in a small village near what is now the border between Nepal and India in the middle of the 6h century B.C.E. He was born into a Kṣatriya family, part of the Śākya clan, and was given the name Siddhārtha (he whose goal will be accomplished) Gautama. It was clear that he...

Buddhism: Central Doctrines

As Buddhism gained followers and monks began to form distinct groups, often united on the basis of doctrinal commonalities and matters of monastic discipline, Buddhism was marked by a doctrinal explosion. This doctrinal profusion Buddhists is truly one of the hallmarks of Buddhism. That said, however, certain key doctrines also are shared by all. Underlying virtually all of Buddhism is the basic doctrines of Samsāra,...

Buddhism: Code of Conduct

The central theme of the Buddhist ethics is the cultivation of mindfulness (sati)— - to develop a mental attitude of complete and selfless awareness, a mental attitude that necessarily influences the manner in which one acts toward other living beings, a mental awareness that fundamentally informs one’s every act and intention to act. The pañcha śīla are the basic ethical guidelines for the layperson, the...

Buddhism: Sacred Books and Symbols

Tradition holds that during the first rainy-season retreat after the Buddha’s death, in 483 BCE., 500 of Buddha’s disciples gathered at Rajagriha (present-day Rajgir, in Bihar) – - to agree the contents of the Dhamma and Vinaya and orally collected all of the Buddha’s teachings into 3 sets, or “three baskets” (Tripitaka; Pali, Tipiṭaka): Ānanda recited the Suttas, the monk Upāli recited the Vinaya, the...

Buddhism: Teachers and Leaders

The Buddha’s immediate disciples not only formed the first Buddhist community but also were responsible for orally preserving his teachings. One of the most important of these early followers was Ānanda, the Buddha’s cousin, who accompanied the Buddha for more than 20 years and figures prominently in early Buddhist texts. Perhaps the most important theologian of early Buddhism was Nāgārjuna (c. 150 – c. 250...

Theravada Buddhism | Introduction

Theravada Buddhism comes from the teachings of the Buddha, who lived in the 5th century B.C.E. The Theravada (School of the Elders, in the Pali language) is the sole surviving branch of the earliest Buddhism. Its primary emphasis was on monastic life, with the single goal of individual Liberation through Enlightenment, until the early 20th century, when it became more widely available. Laypeople practice generosity...

Decline of the Dharma

Texts predicting that the Buddhist religion will last only 500 years do not subdivide this figure into smaller periods. With the advent of longer timetables, however, Buddhists began to identify discrete stages or periods within the overall process of decline. A wide range of periodization systems can be found in Indian Buddhist texts. Clearly there was no consensus among Indian Buddhists on the total duration...

Devadatta

Devadatta is the paradigmatically wicked and evil personality in Buddhist tradition and literature. There are various major and minor legends about Devadatta’s actions against the Buddha and the Buddhist community: The 3 most serious acts leading to Devadatta’s fall into hell, are: 1. Causing the First Schism of the Buddhist order, 2. Wounding the Buddha, and 3. Killing a Buddhist nun named Utpalavarṇā.

Faith in Buddhism

The most common English theological meanings of the word Faith are the ones that have the most questionable similarity to historical Buddhist belief and practice. Buddhist notions tend to occupy a different centre in the semantic field: serene trust, confident belief that the practice of the dharma will bear the promised fruit, and joyful surrender to the presence or vision of one or many “ideal...

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