Buddhism Philosophy & Teachings

Schools of Buddhism | Introduction

We will give next a general historical account of the chief branches of Buddhist thought in India such as Vaibhasikas, Sautrantikas, Yogacaras and Madhyamikas and briefly show their relation to the central teachings of the Buddha such as three fundamental principles of Impermanence (anitya), Sorrow (duhkha), and Non-self (anātman).

5 Nikayas of Theravada Buddhism: Structure and Review

5 Nikayas of Theravada Buddhism - structure and complete Review: Dīgha Nikāya - Collection of Long Discourses of the Buddha, Majjhima Nikāya - Collection of Medium Length Discourses of the Buddha. Saṁyutta Nikāya - 7762 suttas of varied length. Aṅguttara Nikāya - containing 9557 short suttas. Khuddaka Nikāya - Suttas not included in the first four Nikāyas

The Dhammasaṅgaṇī gives an enumeration of these dhammas classifying them under the Tika and Duka groups. Vibhaṅga analyses them to show what dhammas are contained in the major categories. Dhātukathā studies the relationship of dhammas listed in the Mātikā with each component of these major categories of khandhas, āyatanas and dhātus. Yamaka resolves ambiguity in the internal and external relationship of each dhamma.

Abhidhamma is the third great division of the Piṭaka. It is a huge collection of systematically arranged, tabulated and classified doctrines of the Buddha, representing the quintessence of his Teaching. Abhidhamma means Higher Teaching or Special Teaching; it is unique in its abstruseness, analytical approach, immensity of scope and conduciveness to ones liberation. Abhidhamma Piṭaka is made up of seven massive treatises.

The Suttanta Pitaka is a collection of all the discourses in their entirety delivered by the Buddha on various occasions. The discourses of the Buddha compiled together in the Suttanta Pitaka were expounded to suit different occasions, for various persons with different temperaments. The Suttanta Pitaka is divided into five separate collections known as Nikāyas: Dīgha, Majjhima, Samyutta, Aṅguttara and Khuddaka Nikāyas.

The Vinaya Piṭaka is made up of rules of discipline laid down for regulating the conduct of the Buddha's disciples who have been admitted as bhikkhus and bhikkhunnīs into the Order. These rules embody authoritative injunctions of the Buddha on modes of conduct and restraints on both physical and verbal actions. They deal with transgressions of discipline and admonitions in accordance with the nature of...

Commentaries on the Tibetan Book of the Dead

Here you can read the commentaries of highly respected Buddhist Lama Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche on the Tibetan Book of the Dead, otherwise known as Bardo Thödol. Tibetan Book of the Dead is not only for those who are going to die or who are already dead, it is also for those who are already born; birth and death apply to everybody constantly, at this very...

Nirvana and Religion | Early Buddhism 4

What then is nirvana—the final goal of all spiritual endeavour? A Buddha or an Arhat attains nirvana with residue (upādhi-śeṣa) here below—becomes a Jīvan-mukta,his body continues to function till death, but his soul ceases to acquire new karma.When the body drops off, he attains nirvana without residue (anupādhi-śeṣa) as no fresh embodiment takes place.

Doctrine of Non-Soul | Early Buddhism 3

Between two opposite viewpoints of eternalism (whether absolutistic or dualistic) and annihilation-ism lies the creed of the Buddha that though there is no unchanging self (ātman), still it is not a function of matter and is not completely denuded of all causal efficacy when particular bodily embodiment ceases to exist. Negation of the soul (anātma-vāda) amounts only to this, that its entitative persistence is denied.

Law of Dependent Origination | Early Buddhism 2

The flourish with which the discovery of dependent origination or causal concatenation is announced in the Pali canon,shows the importance the Buddhist monks and schoolmen attached to the formula. The real point is whether the rule of law governing the destinies of sentient existence was couched in the language of the dependent origination formula by the Buddha himself or some of his followers.

The Age of Buddha | Early Buddhism 1

The Buddha was born in the sixth century B.C. It was an age of spiritual restlessness and society was moving away fast from its old religious moorings.Criticism of Vedic practices had started earlier, in fact, for even the Upaniṣads belittled the efficacy of sacrificial rites and laid emphasis on knowledge of Reality as the best path of attaining a blessed hereafter.

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