Buddhism Philosophy & Teachings

Schools of Buddhism | Introduction

We will give next a general historical account of the chief branches of Buddhist thought in India such as Vaibhasikas, Sautrantikas, Yogacaras and Madhyamikas and briefly show their relation to the central teachings of the Buddha such as three fundamental principles of Impermanence (anitya), Sorrow (duhkha), and Non-self (anātman).

Taking of Refuge | Theravada

‘Śarana’ in Pali means ‘Refuge’ and is defined as ‘a shelter or protection from danger or trouble; a person, thing or course that provides protection’. Theravada Buddhist teachers define ‘śarana’ as follows: If one pays respect or reverence to a certain object or person, and if that act of respect or reverence amounts to a Kuśala kamma (wholesome action), which can save one from the...

Five Realms of Rebirth

Buddha mentioned 5 destinations (pañcagati) for rebirth. What are the five? Hell, the animal realm, the realm of ghosts, human beings and gods. Hell, animal and ghost realms are woeful states of existence (duggati) while the realms of humans and gods are happy states of existence (sugati). The animal, ghost, and human realms exist on the surface of the earth. The gods are believed to...

Death and Rebirth | Theravada Buddhism

This is an article dedicated to the teachings on Death and Rebirth and more precisely - to teachings on Death and Rebirth as it is taught and understood in Theravada Buddhism... First off, this is very important subject and should be treated as such; it is not a castles of sand - it is based on ancient religious teachings of Arahants and Buddhas and sages...

Law of Kamma

The Law of Kamma is a fundamental doctrine in Buddhism: Although this belief was prevalent in India before the advent of the Buddha, it was the Buddha who explained and formulated this doctrine in its complete form, which we have today. "All living beings are owners of their actions, heirs of their actions; they originate from their actions, are related to their actions, have their...

Law of Dependent Origination

Dependent Origination (PATICCA SAMUPPADA) What is the Law of Dependent Origination? According to this law, every phenomenon owes its origin to another phenomenon prior to it. It may simply be expressed as “depending on this, this originates”. Why then did the Buddha teach the doctrine of Dependent Origination? It was to show through which causes and conditions, suffering comes into being, now and hereafter. It...

Noble Eightfold Path

It is the Noble Eightfold Path, the way that leads to the cessation of suffering, namely: (a) Right View Samma-diṭṭhi - Wisdom (b) Right Thought Samma-sankappa - Wisdom (c) Right Speech Samma-vaca - Morality (d) Right Action Samma-kammanta - Morality (e) Right Livelihood Samma-ajiva - Morality (f) Right Effort Samma-vayama - Concentration (g) Right Mindfulness Samma-sati - Concentration (h) Right Concentration Samma-samādhi - Concentration

Four Noble Truths

After 6 years of strenuous striving in His last life, the Buddha finally realized the Truth when He attained Supreme Enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodhgaya, India. This monumental event happened on the full-moon day of Wesak in 588 BC. This topic of the “Four Noble Truths” is the very heart and core of Buddhism: These Truths, made known by the Buddha after His...

5 Nikayas of Theravada Buddhism: Structure and Review

5 Nikayas of Theravada Buddhism - structure and complete Review: Dīgha Nikāya - Collection of Long Discourses of the Buddha, Majjhima Nikāya - Collection of Medium Length Discourses of the Buddha. Saṁyutta Nikāya - 7762 suttas of varied length. Aṅguttara Nikāya - containing 9557 short suttas. Khuddaka Nikāya - Suttas not included in the first four Nikāyas

The Dhammasaṅgaṇī gives an enumeration of these dhammas classifying them under the Tika and Duka groups. Vibhaṅga analyses them to show what dhammas are contained in the major categories. Dhātukathā studies the relationship of dhammas listed in the Mātikā with each component of these major categories of khandhas, āyatanas and dhātus. Yamaka resolves ambiguity in the internal and external relationship of each dhamma.

Abhidhamma is the third great division of the Piṭaka. It is a huge collection of systematically arranged, tabulated and classified doctrines of the Buddha, representing the quintessence of his Teaching. Abhidhamma means Higher Teaching or Special Teaching; it is unique in its abstruseness, analytical approach, immensity of scope and conduciveness to ones liberation. Abhidhamma Piṭaka is made up of seven massive treatises.