SHRIMAD DEVI BHAGAVATAM | BOOK 9 CHAPTER 1

THE NINTH BOOK

Chapter I

On the description of Prākriti

1. Śrī Nārāyaṇa said:

This (Highest) Prākriti is recognised as five-fold. When She is engaged in the work of Creation, She appears as (1) Durgā, the Mother of Ganeśa, (2) Rādhā, (3) Lakṣmī, (4) Saraswatī and (5) Sāvitrī.

2-3. Nārada replied:

O Thou, the best of Jñānins! Who is this Prākriti? (Whether She is of the nature of Intelligence or of matter?) Why did She manifest Herself and then again why did She reveal Herself in these five forms? And what are Her characteristics?

Now Thou oughtest to describe the lives of all, the different modes of their worship, and the fruits that are accrued thereby.

Please also inform me which Forms of them manifested themselves in which different places. Dost Thou please narrate to me all these.

4-18. Nārāyaṇa said:

“O Child! Who is there in this world that can describe fully the characteristics of Prākriti! However I will describe to you that much which I heard from my own father, Dharma. Hear:

 The prefix “Pra” in the word Prākriti means exalted, superior, excellent; and the affix “Kṛiti” denotes creation. So the Goddess, the Devī Who is the most excellent in the work of creation is known as the Devī Prākriti.

To come closer “Pra” signifies the Sattva Guṇa, the most exalted quality, “Kṛi” denotes the Rajo Guṇa and “Ti” denotes the Tamo Guṇa.

(The Sattva Guṇa is considered as the Highest as it is perfectly clear and free from any impurities whatsoever; the Rajo Guṇa is considered intermediate as it has this defect that it spreads a veil over the reality of things, so as not to allow men to understand the True Reality, while the Tamo Guṇa is considered worst as it completely hides the Real Knowledge).

So when this Intelligence of the nature of Brahmā, beyond the three attributes, gets tinged with the above three Guṇas and becomes omnipotent, then She is superior (Pradhāna) in the work of creation. Hence She is styled as Prākriti.

O Child Nārada! The state just preceding that of creation is denoted by “Pra”; and “Kṛi” signifies creation. So the Great Devī that exists before creation is called Prākriti after creation.

The Paramātmā by His Yoga (i.e., Māyā Śaktī) divided Himself into two parts; the right side of which was male and the left side was the female Prākriti. So the Prākriti is of the nature of Brahmā. She is eternal.

As the fire and its burning power are not different, so there is no separate distinction between Ātman and His Śaktī, between Puruṣa and Prākriti.

Therefore those that are foremost and the highest of the Yogis do not recognise any difference between a male and a female. All is Brāhman.

He is everywhere as male and female forever. There is nothing in this world that can exist for a moment even without this Brāhman consisting of male and female, (i.e. they are Brāhman with Māyā manifested).

Out of the Will of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, to create the world Whose Will is all in all, came out at once the Mūlā Prākriti, the Great Devī Īśvarī, (the Lady Controller of the Universe) Brahmā with Māyā in a state of equilibrium).

By Her command came out five Forms of Her, either for the purpose of creation or for bestowing Favour and Grace to the Bhaktas (devotees).

Durgā the Mother of Gaṇeśa, comes, as the first, the most auspicious, loved by Śiva. She is Nārāyanī, Viṣṇu Māyā, and of the nature of Pūrṇa Brahmā (the Supreme Brahmā).

This eternal, all auspicious Devī is the Presiding Deity of all the Devas and is, therefore, worshipped and praised by Brahmā and the other Devas, Munis, and Manus.

This Bhagavatī Durgā Devī, (when She gets pleased) destroys all the sorrows, pains and troubles of the Bhaktas that have taken Her refuge, and gives them Dharma, everlasting name and fame, all auspicious things and bliss and all the happiness, nay, the Final Liberation!

She is the Greatest Refuge of these Bhaktas that come to Her wholly for protection and are in great distress, whom She saves from all their dangers and calamities.

In fact, know this Durgā Devī as, verily, the Presiding Deity of the heart of Kṛṣṇa and as His Highest Śaktī, of the nature of the Holy Fire and the Holy Light. She is Omnipotent and resides always with Kṛṣṇa, the Great God.

She is worshipped by all the Siddha Puruṣas (those that have attained success); the (eighteen) Siddhis all go to Her and when pleased She gives whatever Siddhis (success) that Her Bhaktas want.

19-40. This Great Devī is the intelligence, sleep, hunger, thirst, shadow, drowsiness, fatigue, kindness, memory, caste, forbearance, errors, peace, beauty, and consciousness, contentment, nourishment, prosperity, and fortitude.

She is sung in the Vedas and in other Śāstras as the Mahā Māyā, of the nature of the Universe. In reality, She is the All-Śaktī of the Universe and She is the Śaktī of Kṛṣṇa. All these qualities are also mentioned in the Vedas.

What is mentioned here is a tithe merely, in comparison to that of the Vedas. She has infinite qualities. Now hear of other Śaktis.

The second Śaktī of the Paramātmān is named Padmā (Lakṣmī). She is of the nature of Śuddha Sattva (Higher than Sattva Guṇa) and is Kṛṣṇa’s Presiding Deity of all wealth and prosperity.

This very beautiful Lakṣmī Devī is the complete master of the senses; She is of a very peaceful temper, of good mood and all-auspicious. She is free from greed, delusion, lust, anger, vanity and egoism.

She is devoted to Her husband and to Her Bhaktas; Her words are very sweet and She is very dear to Her husband, indeed, the Life and Soul of Him. This Devī is residing in all the grains and vegetables and so She is the Source of Life of all the beings.

She is residing in Vaikuṇṭha as Mahā Lakṣmī, chaste and always in the service of Her husband. She is the Heavenly Lakṣmī, residing in the Heavens and the royal Lakṣmī in palaces and the Griha Lakṣmī in the several families of several householders.

O Nārada! All the lovely beauty that you see in all the living beings and all the things, it is She; She is the glory and fame of those that have done good and pious works and it is She that is the prowess of the powerful kings.

She is the trade of merchants, the mercy of the saints, engaged in doing good to others and the seed of dissensions in those sinful and vicious persons as approved of in the Vedas. She is worshipped by all, reverenced by all.

Now I will describe to you about the third Śaktī of the Great God who is the Presiding Deity of knowledge, speech, intelligence, and learning. This third Śaktī is named Saraswatī.

She is all the learning of this endless Universe and She resides as Medhā (intelligence) in the hearts of all the human beings; She is the power in composing poetry; She is the memory and She is the great wit, light, splendour and inventive genius.

She gives the power to understand the real meaning of the various difficult Siddhāṅta works; She explains and makes us understand the difficult passages and She is the remover of all doubts and difficulties.

She acts when we write books, when we argue and judge, when we sing songs of music; She is the time or measure in music; She holds balance and union in vocal and instrumental music.

She is the Goddess of speech; She is the Presiding Deity in the knowledge of various subjects; in argumentations and disputations. In fact all the beings earn their livelihood by taking recourse to Her.

She is peaceful and holds in Her hands Vīṇā (lute) and books. Her nature is purely Sāttvic (Śuddha Sattva), modest and very loving to Śrī Hari.

Her colour is white like ice-clad mountains, like that of the white sandal, like that of the Kunda flower, like that of the Moon, or white lotus. She always repeats the name of Paramātmā Śrī Kṛṣṇa while She turns Her bead composed of jewels.

Her nature is ascetic; She is the bestower of the fruits of the asceticism of the ascetics; She is the Siddhi and Vidyā of all; She grants always success to all. If She were not here, the whole host of Brāhmins would always remain speechless like the dead cluster of persons.

What is recited in the Vedas as the Third Devī is the Holy Word, The Third Śaktī, Saraswatī. Thus I have described Her. Now hear the glories of the other Devī in accordance with the Vedas.

She is the mother of the four colours (castes), the origin of the (six) Vedāngas (the limbs of the Vedas and all the Chhandas, the Seed of all the mantrams of Sandhyā Vandanam and the Root, the Seed of the Tantras;

She Herself is versed in all the subjects, is Herself an ascetic, She is the Tapas of the Brāhmins; She is the Tejas (Fire) and the caste of the Brāhmin caste and embodies in Herself all sorts of Saṁskāras (tendencies; inclinations);

She is the Japam, Pure, known by the names of Sāvitrī and Gāyatrī, She resides always in the Brahmā Loka (the Sphere of Brahmā) and is such as all the sacred places of pilgrimages want Her touch for their purification.

41-47. Her colour is perfectly white like the pure crystal. She is purely Śuddha Sattva, of the nature of the Highest Bliss; She is eternal and superior to all.

She is of the nature of Parā Brahmā and is the bestower of Mokṣa. She is the Fiery Śaktī and the Presiding Deity of the Brahmā Tejas (the fiery spirit of Brahmā, and the Brāhmaṇas).

The whole world is purified by the touch of Whose Feet, this Sāvitrī Devī is the Fourth Śaktī.

O Child Nārada! Now I will describe to you about the Fifth Śaktī, the Devī Rādhikā. Hear:

She is the Presiding Deity of the five Prāṇas; She Herself is the Life of all, dearer than life even to Śrī Kṛṣṇa; and She is highly more beautiful and superior to all the other Prākriti Devīs.

She dwells in everything; She is very proud of Her good fortune (Saubhāgyam); Her glory is infinite; and She is the wife, the left part of body, as it were, of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and She is not in any way inferior to Him, either in quality or in the Tejas (Fiery Spirit) or in any other thing.

She is higher than the Highest; the Essence of all, infinitely superior, the First of all, Eternal, of the nature of the Highest Bliss, fortunate, highly respected, and worshipped by all.

She is, the Presiding Devī of the Rasa Līla of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. From Her has sprung the Rāsa Maṇḍalam and She is the Grace and the Ornament of the Rāsa Maṇḍalam (the dance in a circle in Rasa).

48-70. She is the Lady of the Rāsa Lila, the Foremost of the Jovial, humorous (witty) persons and dwells always in Rāsa. Her abode is in Goloka and from Her have come out all the Gopīkās.

Rāsa - the circular dance of Kṛṣṇa and the cow-herdesses of Vrindāvana. Her nature is the Highest Bliss, the Highest Contentment, and Excessive Joy;

She transcends the three Sattva, Rajo and Tamo Guṇas and is Nirākāra (without any particular form); but She dwells everywhere but unconnected with any. She is the soul of all.

She is without any effort to do anything and void of Ahaṁkāra. She assumes forms only to show Her favour to Her Bhaktas. The intelligent learned men (Pundits) read Her Mahimā (glories) in meditating on Her according to the Vedas.

The chief of the Devas and the Munis could never see Her; Her clothings are fire-proof and She is decorated with many ornaments all over Her body.

Her body looks as if the crores of moons have risen all at once; She is the Giver of Bhakti (devotion) towards Kṛṣṇa, services towards Kṛṣṇa; and She bestows all wealth and prosperity.

In Varāha Kalpa, i.e., when the Varāha incarnation took place, She incarnated Herself as the daughter of one Gopa (cow-herd), named Vrisabhānu. And Earth was blessed by the touch of Her feet.

She is such as Brahmā and the other Devas could never perceive Her by any of their senses, yet everyone at Vrindāvana saw Her very easily.

She is the Gem amongst women. And when She is seen on the breast of Kṛṣṇa, it seems that lightnings flash in the blue mass of clouds in the sky.

In days gone by, Brahmā practised several austerities for sixty thousand years to purify Himself by seeing the nails of Her toe; but far from seeing that, He could not have that even in his dreams. At last He succeeded in seeing Her at Vrindāvana and became blessed.

O Child Nārada! This is the fifth Prākriti and She is denominated as Rādhā. Every female in every Universe is sprung from a part of Śrī Rādhā or part of a part.

O Nārada! Thus I have described to you the five Highest Prakritis, Durgā and others. Now I am going to describe those that are parts of these Prakritis. Hear:

The Ganges, Gangā has sprung from the lotus feet of Viṣṇu; Her form is fluid-like; She is eternal. And She is the veritable burning fire to burn away the sins of the sinners.

She is sweet to touch in taking baths and in drinking; She gives final liberation to the Jīvas, and leads easily to the Goloka abode. She is the holiest amongst the places of pilgrimage and is the first of the running rivers.

She is the rows of pearls in the clotted hairs of Mahādeva’s head and She is the Tapasyā (asceticism) incarnate of the Tapasvis (ascetics) of the Bhārata Varṣā.

This Ganges purifies the three worlds and is the part of Mūlā Prākriti; She shines like the Full Moon, is white like white lotus and like milk; She is pure Śuddha Sattva, clear, free from any Ahaṁkāra, chaste and beloved of Nārāyaṇa.

The Tulasī Devī is the consort of Viṣṇu. She is the ornament of Nārāyaṇa, and dwells always at the lotus feet of Nārāyaṇa. By Her are performed all the acts of worship, all austerities, and all Sankalpas (resolves).

She is the chief of all the flowers, holy and able to give merits (Puṇyam) to others. At Her sight and touch, Nirvana can be obtained; and, were it not for Her, there could be no other fire in this Kālī Yuga to burn the sins.

She Herself is of the nature of Fire and at the touch of Whose lotus-feet, the earth is purified; all the Tīrthas desire to have Her sight and touch for purification and without Her all acts in this world become fruitless.

She bestows Mokṣa (liberation) to those who want final liberation, grants all sorts of desires to several people, Who Herself is like a Kalpa Vrikṣa, Who is the Presiding Deity of all the trees in Bhārata and Who has come here to grant satisfaction to the ladies of Bharata Varṣā and She is considered very superior throughout all parts of India.

This Tulasī Devī is the chief factor of Mūlā Prākriti.

71-95. Then comes the Mānasa Devī, the daughter of Kaśyapa. She is the dear disciple of Śankara and is therefore very learned in matters of Śāstras.

She is the daughter of Ananta Deva, the Lord of Snakes and is very much respected by all the Nagas. She Herself is very beautiful, the Lady of the Nagas, the mother of the Nagas and is carried by them.

She is decorated with ornaments of the Snakes; She is respected by the Nāgendras and She sleeps on the bed of Snakes.

She is Siddha Yoginī, the devotee of Viṣṇu and always ready in the worship of Viṣṇu; She is the Tapas and the bestower of the fruits of Tapas.

She is Herself an ascetic, She spent three lakh years (according to the Deva measure) and has become the foremost of the ascetics in Bhāratvarṣa.

She is the Presiding Deity of all the mantras; Her whole body shines with Brahmāteja (the Holy Fire of Brahmā). Herself of the nature of Brahmā, She again meditates on Brāhman.

She is sprung from a part of Śrī Kṛṣṇa and the chaste wife of Jarat Kāru Muni, the mother of Āstika, the great Muni; She is the part of Mūlā Prākriti.

O Child Nārada! Now comes the Śaṣṭhī Devī, the Mother of Devasenā. She is the most superior amongst the Gaurī and the sixteen Mātrikās.

This chaste woman is the giver of sons and grandsons in the three worlds and the nurse, the foster mother of all. She is the sixth part of Mūlā Prākriti and is hence known by the name of Śaṣṭhī.

She lives near to every child as an aged Yoginī. Her worship is everywhere prevalent in the twelve months Viśākhā, etc.

When the child gets born, on the sixth day of Her worship is done in the lying-in-chamber and again on the 21st day (after twenty days have passed away) the most auspicious worshipful ceremony of Her is performed.

The Munis bow down to Her with reverence and want to visit Her daily. She protects all children always with a mother’s affectionate heart. This Śaṣṭhī Devī is again the part of Mūlā Prākriti.

Then appears the Devī Mangalā Chaṇḍikā. She goes from one house to another, on land or through water or in air, doing great good to them; She has come out of the face of the Prākriti Devī and is doing always all sorts of good to this world.

Her name is Mangalā Chaṇḍī because She is all auspicious at the time of creation and assumes very furious angry appearance at the time of destruction. So the Pundits say.

On every Tuesday in all the worlds Her worship is done; and She, when pleased, gives to women sons, grandsons, wealth, prosperity, fame and good of all sorts and grants all desires. This Mangalā Chaṇḍī is again the part of Mūlā Prākriti.

Now comes the lotus-eyed Maheśvarī Kālī who when angry can destroy all this universe in a moment, who sprang from the forehead of the Mūlā Prākriti, Durgā to slay the two demons Śumbha and Niśumbha.

She is the half-portion of Durgā and qualified like Her, fiery and energetic. The beauty and splendour of whose body make one think as if the millions of suns have arisen simultaneously.

Who is the foremost of all the Śaktis and is more powerful than any of them, Who grants success to all the persons, Who is superior to all and is of Yogic nature,

Who is exceedingly devoted to Kṛṣṇa and like Him fiery, well-qualified, and valorous, Whose body has become black by the constant meditation of Śrī Kṛṣṇa,

Who can destroy in one breath this whole Brahmāṇḍa, Who was engaged in fighting with the Daityas simply for sport and instruction to the people and Who, when pleased in worship can grant the four fruits Dharma, Artha, Kama and Mokṣa. This Kālī is also the part of Prākriti.

The Devī Vasundharā (Earth) is again the part of Mūlā Prākriti. Brahmā and the other Devas, all the Muni Maṇḍalams (the spheres of Munis), fourteen Manus and all men sing hymns to Her.

She is the support of all and filled with all sorts of grains. She is the source of all gems and jewels; She bears in Her womb all the precious metals.

All sorts of best things issue from Her. She is the Refuge of all. The subjects and kings worship Her always and chant hymns to Her.

All the Jīvas live through Her and She bestows all sorts of wealth and prosperity. Without Her all this, moving or non-moving, become void of any substratum. Where to rest on!

96-143. O Child Nārada! Now hear about them who are issued again from the parts of Mūlā Prākriti as well as the names of their wives. I will now narrate duly:

The Devī “Svāhā” is the wife of Agni (Fire), and the whole Universe worships Her. Without her, the Devī can never take any oblations.

Dakṣiṇā and Dīkṣā are both the wives of Yajña (Sacrifice). They are honoured everywhere. So much so that without Dakṣiṇā (the fees given at the end of the Sacrifice) no sacrificial ceremonies can be complete and fructifying.

The Devī “Svadhā” is the wife of the Pitris. All worship this Devī “Svadhā” whether they are Munis, Manus, or men. If this mantra “Svadhā” be not uttered while making an offering to the Pitris, all turn out useless.

The Devī “Svasti” is the wife of the Vāyu Deva; She is honoured everywhere in the Universe. Without this “Svasti” Devī, no giving nor taking nor any action can be fructifying and useful.

“Puṣṭī” (nourishment) is the wife of Gaṇapatī. All in this world worship this Puṣṭī Devī. Without this “Puṣṭī”, women or men alike all become weaker and weaker.

Tuṣṭī (satisfaction, contentment) is the wife of Ananta Deva. She is praised and worshipped everywhere in this world. Without Her no one anywhere in the world can be happy.

Sampattī” is the wife of Īśāna Deva. The Suras, the men all alike worship Her. Were it not for Her, all in this world would be oppressed with dire poverty.

The Devī “Dhritī” is the wife of Kapila Deva. She is honoured equally in all places. Were it not for Her, all the people in this world would have become impatient.

The “Satī” Devī is the wife of Satya Deva (Truth). She is endearing to the whole world. The liberated ones worship Her always. Were it not for the truth loving Sati, the whole world would have lost the treasure in friendship.

Dayā” (Mercy) endearing to the whole world is the chaste wife of “Mohā Deva”. She is liked by all. Were it not for Her, all the world would have become hopeless.

The Devī “Pratiṣṭhā” (fame, celebrity) is the wife of Puṇya Deva (merit).She gives merits to persons according as they worship Her. Were it not for Her, all the persons would remain dead while living.

The Devī “Kīrti” (fame) is the wife of Sukarma (good works). Herself a Siddha (one who has acquired the result of one’s success), all the blessed people honour Her with great reverence. Were it not for Her, all the persons in this world would have been dead, devoid of any fame.

Kriyā (work-efforts, action, doing) is the wife of “Udyoga” (enthusiasm). All honour Her greatly. O Muni Nārada! Were it not for Her, the whole people would be void of any rules and regulations.

Falsehood is the wife of Adharma (unrighteousness). She is honoured greatly by all the cheats that are extant in this world. Were she not liked by them, then all the cheats would become extinct.

She did not fall in the sight of anybody in the Satya Yuga. Her subtle form became visible in the Trētā Yuga. When the Dvāpara Yuga came, She became half developed. And at last when the Kālī Yuga has come, She is fully developed and there is no second to Her whether in bold confidence and shamelessness or in talking much and pervading everywhere.

With her brother Deceitfulness, She roams from one house to another. Peace and modesty and shame are both the wives of good behaviour. Were they not existent, all in this world would have turned out deluded and mad.

Intelligence, genius and fortitude, these three are the wives of Jñāna (knowledge). Had they not lived, everyone would become stupid and insane.

Mūrti is the wife of Dharma Devī. She is of the nature of Beauty to all and very charming. Were it not for Her, Paramātmān would not get any resting place; and the whole universe would have become Nirālamba (without anything to rest).

This chaste Mūrti Devī is of the nature of splendour, loveliness and Lakṣmī. She is everywhere respected, worshipped and reverenced.

“Sleep”, the Siddha Yoginī, is the wife of Rudra Deva, who is of the nature of Kālāgni (the universal conflagration at the break-up of the world). All the Jīvas spend their nights with Her.

The twilights, night and day are the wives of Kāla (Time). If they were not, the Creator even would not be able to reckon time.

Hunger and thirst are the wives of Lobha (covetousness). They are thanked, respected and worshipped by the whole world. Had they not lived, the whole world would have merged ever in an ocean of anxieties.

Splendour and burning capacity are the wives of Tejas (fire). Without these, the Lord of the world could never have created and established order in this universe.

Death and old age are the daughters of the Kāla, and the dear wives of Jvarā (the disease). Without these, all the creation would come to an end.

The Tandrā (drowsiness, lassitude) and Prīti (satisfaction) are the daughters of Nidrā (sleep). And they are the dear wives of Sukha (pleasure). They are present everywhere in this world.

O Best of Munis! Śraddhā (faith) and Bhakti (devotion) are the wives of Vairāgyam (dispassion). For then all the persons can become liberated while living (Jīvanmuktas).

Besides these there is Aditi, the Mother of the Gods, Surabhi, mother of cows; Diti, the mother of the Daityas; Kadru, the mother of the Nāgas (serpents); Vinatā, the mother of Garuda, the prince of birds; and Danu, the mother of the Dānavas.

All are very useful for the purpose of creation. But these all are parts of Mūlā Prākriti. Now I will mention some of the other parts of Prākriti. Hear:

Rohiṇī, the wife of the Moon, Sanjñā, the wife of the Sun; Śatarūpā, the wife of Manu; Śachī, the wife of Indra; Tārā, the wife of Brihaspati; Aruṇdhatī, the wife of Vaṣiṣṭha;

Anasūyā, the wife of Atri; Devahūtī, the wife of Kardama; Prasūti, the wife of Dakṣa; Menakā, the mind born daughter of the Pitris and the mother of Ambikā, Lopāmudrā, Kunti, the wife of Kubera, the wife of Varuṇa,

Vindhyāvalī, the wife of the King Bali; Damayantī, Yaśodā, Devakī, Gāndhārī, Draupadī, Śaivyā, Satyavatī, the chaste and noble wife of Vriṣabhānu and the mother of Rādhā;

Mandodarī; Kauśalyā, Kauravī,; Subhadrā; Revaṭī, Satyabhāmā, Kālindī, Lakṣmaṇa; Jāmbavatī; Nāgnajitī, Mitravindā, Lakṣaṇā, Rukmiṇī, Sītā, the Lakṣmī incarnate;

Kālī, Yojana Gandhā, the chaste mother of Vyāsa, Ūṣā, the daughter of Vāṇa, her companion Chitralekhā; Prabhāvati, Bhānumatī, the Satī Māyāvatī, Reṇukā, the mother of Paraśurāma;

Rohiṇī, the mother of Balarāma, Ekanandā and the sister of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Satī Durgā and many other ladies are the parts of Prākriti and all the female sex, everywhere in the Universe are all come from the parts of Prākriti. So to insult any woman is to insult the Prākriti.

If one worships a chaste Brāhmin woman, who has her husband and son living, with clothings, ornaments, and sandal paste, etc., one worships, as it were, Prākriti.

If any Vipra worships a virgin girl, eight years old, with clothings, ornaments and sandal paste, know that he has worshipped the Prākriti Devī.

The best, middling, and worst are all sprung from Prākriti. Those women that are sprung from Sattva Guṇa are all very good natured and chaste;

those that are sprung from Rajo Guṇa are middling and very much attached to worldly enjoyments and do their selfish ends

and those that are sprung from Tamo Guṇa are recognised as worst and belonging to the unknown families.

They are very scurrilous, cheats, ruining their families, fond of their own liberties, quarrelsome and no seconds are found equal to them. Such women become prostitutes in this world and Apsarās in the Heavens.

The Hermaphrodites are parts of Prākriti but they are of the nature of Tamo Guṇas.

144-159. Thus I have described to you the nature of Prākriti. So in this Puṇyabhūmi Bhārata Varṣā, to worship the Devī is by all means desirable.

In days of past, the King Suratha worshipped the Mūlā Prākriti Durgā, the Destructrix of all evils. Then again Śrī Rāma Chandra worshipped Her when he wanted to kill Rāvaṇa.

Since then Her worship is extant in the three worlds. She was first born as the honourable daughter of Dakṣa. She destroyed the whole hosts of Daityas and Dānavas.

It was She who, hearing the abusive words uttered against Her husband at the Yajña by Dakṣa, Her father, gave up Her body and took up again Her birth.

She took Her birth in the womb of Menakā and got again Paśupati as Her husband. And of the two sons, Kārtika and Gaṇeśa, born to Her, Kārtika was the Aṇsa (part) of Nārāyaṇa and Gaṇapati was Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself, the Lord of Rādhā.

O Devarṣi! After the two sons, Lakṣmī Devī were born to Durgā. Mangalā Rāja, the King Mars first worshipped Her. Since then, all in the three worlds began to worship Her, whether they are Devas or men.

The King Aśvapati first worshipped Sāvitrī Devī; and since then the Devas, Munis, all began to worship Her. When the Devī Saravastī was born, the Bhagavān Brahmā first worshipped Her; next the greatest Munis, Devas all began to worship Her.

On the full moon night of the month of Kārtik, it was Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa, The Highest Spirit, that worshipped, first of all, the Devī Rādhā within the Rāsa Maṇḍalam, the enclosure, within which the Rāsa Līla was performed (the circular dance) in the region Goloka.

Then under the command of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, all the Gopas (cow-herds), Gopis, all the boys, girls, Surabhi, the queen of the race of the cows, and the other cows worshipped Her.

So since Her worship by the inhabitants of Goloka, by Brahmā and the other Devas and the Munis, all began to worship ever Śrī Rādhā with devotion and incense, light and various other offerings.

On earth She was first worshipped by Sujajñā, in the sacred field of Bhāratvarṣa, under the direction of Bhagavān Mahādeva. Subsequently, under the command of the Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Highest Spirit, the inhabitants of the three worlds began to worship Her.

The Munis with great devotion, with incense, flowers and various other offerings worship always the Devī Rādhā.

 O Child Nārada! Besides these, all the other Devīs that have issued from Prākriti Devī are all worshipped. So much so that in the villages, the village Deities, in the forests, the forest Deities and in the cities, the city Deities are worshipped.

Thus I have described to you all according to the Śāstras the glorious lives of the Devī Prākriti and Her parts. What more do you want to hear?

Here ends the First Chapter on the Description of Prākriti in the Ninth Book of the Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam of 18,000 verses by Mahāṛṣi Veda Vyāsa.