Dasuttara Sutta: Expanding Decades

Dasuttara Sutta: Expanding Decades

1.1. Thus have I heard:

Once the Lord was staying at Campā beside the Gaggarā lotus-pond, with a large company of some five hundred monks.

Then the Venerable Sāriputta addressed the monks: 'Friends, monks!' 'Friend!' replied the monks. And the Venerable Sāriputta said:

'In growing groups from one to ten I'll teach Dhamma for the gaining of Nibbāna,
That you may make an end of suffering,
And be free from all the ties that bind.

1.2. 'There is friends, (1) one thing that greatly helps, (2) one thing to be developed, (3) one thing to be thoroughly known, (4) one thing to be abandoned, (5) one thing that conduces to diminution,

(6) one thing that conduces to distinction, (7) one thing hard to penetrate, (8) one thing to be made to arise, (9) one thing to be thoroughly learnt, and (10) one thing to be realised.

(1) 'Which one thing greatly helps? Tirelessness in wholesome states,

(2) 'Which one thing is to be developed? Mindfulness with regard to the body, accompanied by pleasure.

(3) 'Which one thing is to be thoroughly known? Contact as a condition of the corruptions and of grasping.

(4) 'Which one thing is to be abandoned? Ego-conceit.

(5)'Which one thing conduces to diminution? Unwise attention.

(6) 'Which one things conduces to distinction? Wise attention.

(7) 'Which one thing is hard to penetrate? Uninterrupted mental concentration.

(8) 'Which one thing is to be made to arise? Unshakeable knowledge.

(9) 'Which one thing is to be thoroughly learnt? All beings are maintained by nutriment (as Sutta 33, verse 1.8 (1)).

(10) 'Which one thing is to be realised? Unshakeable deliverance of mind.

'That makes ten things that are real and true, so and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathagata.'

1.3. 'Two things greatly help, two things are to be developed ...((1)—(10) as above).

(1) 'Which two things greatly help? Mindfulness and clear awareness (as Sutta 33, verse 1.9 (18)).

(2) 'Which two things are to be developed? Calm and insight (as Sutta 33, verse 1.9 (29)).

(3) 'Which two things are to be thoroughly known? Mind and body (as Sutta 33, verse 1.9 (1)).

(4) 'Which two things are to be abandoned? Ignorance and craving for existence (as Sutta 33, verse 1.9 (2)).

(5) 'Which two things conduce to diminution? Roughness and friendship with evil (as Sutta 33, verse 1.9 (6)).

(6) 'Which two things conduce to distinction? Gentleness and friendship with good (as Sutta 33, verse 1.9).

(7) 'Which two things are hard to penetrate? That which is the root, the condition of the defilement of beings, and that which is the root, the condition of the purification of beings.

(8) 'Which two things are to be made to arise? Knowledge of the destruction [of the defilements] and of [their] non-recurrence (as Sutta 33, verse 1.9 (33)).

(9) 'Which two things are to be thoroughly learnt? Two elements, the conditioned and the unconditioned.

(10) 'Which two things are to be realised? Knowledge and liberation (as Sutta 33, verse 1.9 (32)).

'That makes twenty things that are real and true, so and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathagata.'

1.4. 'Three things greatly help, three things are to be developed

(1) 'Which three things greatly help? Association with good people, hearing the true Dhamma, practice of the Dhamma in its entirety (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (13)).

(2) 'Which three things are to be developed? Three kinds of concentration (as Sutta 33, verse 1.10 (50)).

(3) 'Which three things are to be thoroughly known? Three feelings (as Sutta 33, verse 1.10 (26)).

(4) 'Which three things are to be abandoned? Three kinds of craving (as Sutta 33, verse 1.10 (16)).

(5) 'Which three things conduce to diminution? Three unwholesome roots (as Sutta 33, verse 1.10 (1)).

(6) 'Which three things conduce to distinction? Three wholesome roots (as Sutta 33, verse 1.10 (2)).

(7) 'Which three things are hard to penetrate? Three elements making for deliverance: (a) deliverance from sensuality, that is, renunciation, (b) deliverance from material forms, that is, the immaterial, (c) whatever has become, is compounded, is conditionally arisen — the deliverance from that is cessation.

(8) 'Which three things are to be made to arise? Three knowledges of past, future, present.

(9) 'Which three things are to be thoroughly learnt? Three elements (as Sutta 33, verse 1.10 (13)).

(10) 'Which three things are to be realised? Three knowledges (vijjā: as Sutta 33, verse 1.10 (58)).

That makes thirty things that are real and true, so and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathagata.'

1.5. 'Four things greatly help, four things are to be developed...

(1) 'Which four things greatly help? Four "wheels": (a) a favourable place of residence, (b) association with good people (sappurisupassay0), (c) perfect development of one's personality, past meritorious actions.

(2) 'Which four things are to be developed? Four foundations of mindfulness (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (1)).

(3) 'Which four things are to be thoroughly known? Four nutriments (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (17)).

(4) 'Which four things are to be abandoned? Four floods (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (31)).

(3) 'Which four things conduce to diminution? Four yokes (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (32)).

(6) 'Which four things conduce to distinction? Four "unyokings" (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (33)).

(7) 'Which four things are hard to penetrate? Four concentrations: (a) conducing to decline, (b) conducing to stasis, (c) conducive to distinction, (d) conducive to penetration.

(8) 'Which four things are to be made to arise? Four knowledges (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (11)).

(9) 'Which four things are to be thoroughly learnt? Four Noble Truths (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (12)).

(10) Which four things are to be realised? Four fruits of the ascetic life (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (13)).

'That makes forty things that are real and true, so and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathagata.'

1.6. 'Five things greatly help, five things are to be developed...

(1) 'Which five things greatly help? Five factors of endeavour (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (16)).

(2) 'Which five things are to be developed? Fivefold perfect concentration: (a) suffusion with delight, (b) suffusion with happiness (sukha), (c) suffusion with will, (d) suffusion with light, (e) the “reviewing" sign.

(3) 'Which five things are to be thoroughly known? Five aggregates of grasping (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (2)).

(4) 'Which five things are to be abandoned? Five hindrances (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (6)).

(5) 'Which five things conduce to diminution? Five mental blockages (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (19)).

(6) 'Which five things conduce to distinction? Five faculties (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (23)).

(7) 'Which five things are hard to penetrate? Five elements making for deliverance (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (24)).

(8) 'Which five things are to be made to arise?

The fivefold knowledge of right concentration: the knowledge that arises within one that:

(a) "This concentration is both present happiness and productive of future resultant happiness",
(b) "This concentration is Ariyan and free from worldliness",
(c) "This concentration is not practised by the unworthy",
(d) "This concentration is calm and perfect, has attained tranquillisation, has attained unification, and is not instigated, it cannot be denied or prevented",
(e) "I myself attain this concentration with mindfulness, and emerge from it with mindfulness."

(9) 'Which five things are to be thoroughly learnt? Five bases of deliverance (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (23)).

(10) 'Which five things are to be realised? Five branches of Dhamma (as Sutta 33, verse 1.11 (23)) plus knowledge and vision of liberation.

'That makes fifty things that are real and true, and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathāgata.'

1.7. 'Six things greatly help, six things are to be developed...

(1) 'Which six things greatly help? Six things to be remembered (as Sutta 33, verse 2.2 (14)).

(2) 'Which six things are to be developed? Six subjects of recollection (as Sutta 33, verse 2.2 (19)).

(3) 'Which six things are to be thoroughly known? Six internal sense-spheres (as Sutta 33, verse 2.2 (1)).

(4) Which six things are to be abandoned? Six groups of craving (as Sutta 33, verse 2.2 (8)).

(5) 'Which six things conduce to diminution? Six kinds of disrespect (as Sutta 33, verse 2.2 (9)).

(6) 'Which six things conduce to distinction? Six kinds of respect (as Sutta 33, verse 2.2 (10)).

(7) 'Which six things are hard to penetrate? Six elements making for deliverance (as Sutta 33, verse 2.2 (17)).

(8) 'Which six things are to be made to arise? Six stable states (1as Sutta 33, verse 2.2 (20)).

(9) 'Which six things are to be thoroughly known? Six unsurpassed things (as Sutta 33, verse 2.2 (18)).

(10) 'Which six things are to be realised? Six super-knowledges:

Here, a monk applies and bends his mind to, and enjoys, different supernormal powers (iddhi):

(a) Being one, he becomes many (as Sutta 2, verse 87);
(b) with the divine ear he hears sounds both divine and human (as Sutta 2, verse 89);
(c) he knows and distinguishes the minds of other beings (as Sutta 2, verse 91);
(d) he remembers past existences (as Sutta 2, verse 93);
(e) with the divine eye... he sees beings passing away and arising (as Sutta 2, verse 95);
(f) he abides, in this life, by his own super-knowledge and realisation, in the attainment of the corruptionless liberation of heart and liberation through wisdom.

'That makes sixty things that are real and true, so and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathagata.'

1.8. 'Seven things help greatly, seven things are to be developed

(1) 'Which seven things greatly help? Seven treasures (as Sutta 33, verse 2.3 (1)).

(2) 'Which seven things are to be developed? Seven factors of enlightenment (as Sutta 33, verse 2.3 (2)).

(3) 'Which seven things are to be thoroughly known? Seven stations of consciousness (as Sutta 33, verse 2.3 (10)).

(4) 'Which seven things are to be abandoned? Seven latent proclivities (as Sutta 33, verse 2.3 (12)).

(5) 'Which seven things conduce to diminution? Seven wrong practices (as Sutta 33, verse 2.3 (4)).

(6) 'Which seven things conduce to distinction? Seven right practices (as Sutta 33, verse 2.3 (3)).

(7) 'Which seven things are hard to penetrate? Seven qualities of the true man (as Sutta 33, verse 2.3 (6)).

(8) 'Which seven things are to be made to arise? Seven perceptions (as Sutta 33, verse 2.3 (8)).

(9) Which seven things are to be thoroughly learnt? Seven grounds for commendation (as Sutta 33, verse 2.3 (7)).

(10) 'Which seven things are to be learnt? Seven powers of an Arahant.

Here, for a monk who has destroyed the corruptions,

(a) the impermanence of all compounded things is well seen, as it really is, by perfect insight. This is one way whereby he recognises that for him the corruptions are destroyed;

(b)... sense-desires are well seen as being like a pit of glowing embers. ..;

(c)... his heart is bent on and inclined towards detachment (viveka), slopes towards detachment and detachment is its object; rejoicing in renunciation, his heart is totally unreceptive to all things pertaining to the corruptions...;

(d)... the four foundations of mindfulness have been well and truly developed...;

(e)...the five faculties have been well developed...;

(f)... the seven factors of enlightenment have been well developed...;

(g) the Noble Eightfold Path has been well and truly developed...This is one of the powers whereby he recognises that for him the corruptions are destroyed.

'That makes seventy things that are real and true, so and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathagata.'

[End of first recitation-section]

2.1. 'Eight things greatly help, eight things are to be developed

(1) 'Which eight things greatly help?

Eight causes, eight conditions conduce to wisdom in the fundamentals of the holy life, to gaining what has not been gained and to increasing, expanding and developing what has been gained.

Here, (a) one lives close to the Teacher or to a fellow-monk with the standing of a teacher, being thus strongly established in moral shame and moral dread, in love and veneration... He who is so placed

(b) from time to time goes to his teacher, asks and interrogates him; "How is that, Lord? What does this mean?" Thus his venerable teachers can reveal what is hidden and clarify obscurities, in this way helping him to solve his problems,

(c) Then, having heard Dhamma from them, he achieves withdrawal, of body and mind,

(d) Further, a monk is moral, he lives restrained according to the restraint of the discipline, persisting in right behaviour, seeing danger in the slightest fault, and keeping to the rules of training.

Also, (e) a monk, having learnt much, remembers and bears in mind what he has learnt, and those things that are beautiful in the beginning, in the middle and in the ending, which in spirit and letter proclaim the absolutely perfected and purified holy life, he remembers and reflects on, and penetrates them with vision.

Again, (f) a monk, having stirred up energy, continues to dispel unwholesome states, striving strongly and firmly, and not casting off the yoke of the wholesome.

Again, (g) a monk is mindful, with the highest mindfulness and discrimination, remembering and bearing in mind what has been done or said in the past.

Also, (h) a monk continually contemplates the rise and fall of the five aggregates of grasping, thinking: "Such is material form, its arising and passing; such are feelings, such are perceptions, such are the mental formations, such is consciousness, its arising and passing."

(2) 'Which eight things are to be developed? The Noble Eightfold Path: Right View...Right Concentration.

(3) 'Which eight things are to be thoroughly known? Eight worldly conditions (as Sutta 33, verse 3.1 (9)).

(4) 'Which eight things are to be abandoned? Eight wrong factors (as Sutta 33, verse 3.1 (1)).

(5) 'Which eight things conduce to diminution? Eight occasions of indolence (as Sutta 33, verse 3.1 (4)).

(6) 'Which eight Things conduce to distinction? Eight occasions for making an effort (as Sutta 33, verse 3.1 (3)).

(7) 'Which eight things are hard to penetrate? Eight unfortunate, inopportune times for leading the holy life (as Sutta 33, verse 3.1 (4), omitting (d)).

(8) 'Which eight things are to be made to arise? Eight thoughts of a Great Man:

"This Dhamma is (a) for one of few wants, not one of many wants; (b) for the contented, not for the discontented; (c) for the withdrawn, not for those delighting in company; (d) for the energetic, not for the lazy;

(e) for one of established mindfulness, not for one of lax mindfulness; (f) for one of concentrated mind, not for one who is not concentrated;

(g) for one who has wisdom, not for one lacking wisdom; (h) for one who delights in non-proliferation, not for one who delights in proliferation."

(9) 'Which eight things are to be thoroughly learnt? Eight states of mastery (as Sutta 33, verse 3.1 (10)).

(10) 'Which eight things are to be realised? Eight liberations (as Sutta 33, verse 3.1 (11)).

'That makes eighty things that are real and true, so and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathagata.'

2.2. 'Nine things greatly help, nine things are to be developed

(1) 'Which nine things greatly help? Nine conditions rooted in wise consideration:

When a monk practises wise consideration, (a) joy arises in him, and (b) from his being joyful, delight arises, and (c) from his feeling delight, his senses are calmed;

(d) as a result of this calming he feels happiness (sukha), and (e) from his feeling happy, his mind becomes concentrated; (f) with his mind thus concentrated, he knows and sees things as they really are;

(g) with his thus knowing and seeing things as they really are, he becomes disenchanted; (h) with disenchantment he becomes dispassionate, and (i) by dispassion he is liberated.

(2) 'Which nine things are to be developed? Nine factors of the effort for perfect purity:

(a) the factor of effort for purity of morality, (b)... for purity of mind, (c). .. for purity of view, (d)... of purification by overcoming doubt, (e)... of purification by knowledge and vision of path and not-path,

(f)... of purification by knowledge and vision of progress, (g)... of purification by knowledge and vision, (h)... of purity of wisdom, (i)... of purity of deliverance.

(3) 'Which nine things are to be thoroughly known? Nine abodes of beings (as Sutta 33, verse 3.2 (3)).

(4) 'Which nine things are to be abandoned? Nine things rooted in craving:

Craving conditions searching,. .. acquisition, ... decision-making,... lustful desire,... attachment,... appropriation,... avarice,... guarding of possessions,

and because of the guarding of possessions there arise the taking up of stick and sword, quarrels,. .. lying and other evil unskilled states (as Sutta 15, verse 9).

(5) 'Which nine things conduce to diminution? Nine causes of malice (as Sutta 33, verse 3.2 (1)).

(6) 'Which nine things conduce to distinction? Nine ways of overcoming malice (as Sutta 33, verse 3.2 (2)).

(7) 'Which nine things are hard to penetrate? Nine differences:

Owing to difference of element (dhātu) there is difference of contact (phassa);
owing to difference of contact there is difference of feeling;
owing to difference of feeling there is difference of perception;
owing to difference of perception there is difference of thought ',
owing to difference of thought there is difference of intention;
owing to difference of intention there is difference of obsession;
owing to difference of obsession there is difference of quest;
owing to difference of quest there is difference of what is gained.

(8) 'Which nine things are to be made to arise? Nine perceptions:

of the foul, of death, of the loathsomeness of food, of distaste for the whole world, of impermanence, of the suffering in impermanence, of impersonality in suffering, of relinquishment, of dispassion.

(9) 'Which nine things are to be thoroughly learnt? Nine successive abidings (as Sutta 33, verse 3.2 (3)).

(10) 'Which nine things are to be realised? Nine successive cessations (as Sutta 33, verse 3.2 (6)).

'That makes ninety things that are real and true so and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathagata.'

2.3. 'Ten things (1) greatly help, (2) are to be developed, (3) are to be thoroughly known, (4) are to be abandoned, (5) conduce to diminution, (6) conduce to distinction, (7) are hard to penetrate, (8) are to be made to arise, (9) are to be thoroughly learnt, (10) are to be realised.

(1) 'Which ten things greatly help? Ten things that give protection (as Sutta 33, verse 3.1 (1)).

(2) 'Which ten things are to be developed? Ten objects for the attainment of absorption (as Sutta .33, verse 3.3 (2)).

(3) 'Which ten things are to be thoroughly known? Ten sense-spheres: eye and sight-object, ear and sound, nose and smell, tongue and taste, body and tactile object.

(4) 'Which ten things are to be abandoned? Ten wrong courses (as Sutta 33, verse 3.1 (1)) plus wrong knowledge and wrong liberation.

(5) 'Which ten things conduce to diminution? Ten unwholesome courses of action (as Sutta 33, verse 3.3 (3)).

(6) 'Which ten things conduce to distinction? Ten wholesome courses of action (as Sutta 33, verse 3.3 (4)).

(7) 'Which ten things are hard to penetrate? Ten Ariyan dispositions (as Sutta 33, verse 3.3 (3)).

(8) 'Which ten things are to be made to arise? Ten perceptions (as verse 2.2 (8)) and the perception of cessation.

(9) 'Which ten things are to be thoroughly learnt? Ten causes of wearing-away:

By right view wrong view is worn away, and whatever evil and unwholesome states arise on the basis of wrong view are worn away too.

And by right view many wholesome states are developed and perfected.

By right thought wrong thought is worn away...By right speech wrong speech is worn away...By right action wrong action is worn away...

By right livelihood wrong livelihood is worn away...By right effort wrong effort is worn away...By right mindfulness wrong mindfulness is worn away...

By right concentration wrong concentration is worn away...By right knowledge wrong knowledge is worn away...

By right liberation wrong liberation is worn away, and whatever evil and unwholesome states arise on the basis of wrong liberation are worn away too.

And by right liberation many wholesome states are developed and perfected.

(10) 'Which ten things are to be realised? Ten qualities of the non-learner (as Sutta 33, verse 3.3 (6)).

'That makes a hundred things that are real and true, so and not otherwise, unerringly and perfectly realised by the Tathagata.'

So said the Venerable Sāriputta. And the monks were delighted and rejoiced at his words.