Sangīti Sutta: The Chanting Together | 3 Part

Sangīti Sutta: The Chanting Together

Part 3

2.2. 'There are [sets of] six things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

(1) 'Six internal sense-spheres: eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body, mind-sense-sphere.

(2) 'Six external sense-spheres: sight- object, sound-, smell-, taste-, tangible object, mind-object.

(3) 'Six groups of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-consciousness.

(4) 'Six groups of contact: eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact.

(5) 'Six groups of feeling: feeling based on eye-contact, on ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact.

(6) 'Six groups of perception: perception of sights, of sounds, of smells, of tastes, of touches, of mind-objects.

(7) 'Six groups of volition: volition based on sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects.

(8) 'Six groups of craving: craving for sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects.

(9) 'Six kinds of disrespect: Here, a monks behaves disrespectfully and discourteously towards the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Sangha, the training, in respect of earnestness, of hospitality.

(10) 'Six kinds of respect: Here, a monk behaves respectfully...(as (9)).

(ix) 'Six pleasurable investigations:

When, on seeing a sight-object with the eye, on hearing..., smelling..., tasting..., touching..., knowing a mind-object with the mind, one investigates a corresponding object productive of pleasure.

(12) 'Six unpleasurable investigations: (as (11) but: productive of displeasure).

(13) 'Six indifferent investigations: (as (11) but: productive of indifference.

(14) 'Six things conducive to communal living:

As long as monks both in public and in private show loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of body, speech and thought,...

share with their virtuous fellows whatever they receive as a rightful gift, including the contents of their alms- bowls, which they do not keep to themselves,...

keep consistently, unbroken and unaltered those rules of conduct that are spotless, leading to liberation, praised by the wise, unstained and conducive to concentration, and persist therein with their fellows both in public and in private,...

continue in that noble view that leads to liberation, to the utter destruction of suffering, remaining in such awareness with their fellows both in public and in private (as Sutta 16, verse 1.11).

(15) 'Six roots of contention:

Here, (a) a monk is angry and bears ill-will, he is disrespectful and discourteous to the Teacher, the Dhamma and the Sangha, and does not finish his training.

He stirs up contention within the Sangha, which brings woe and sorrow to many, with evil consequences, misfortune and sorrow for devas and humans.

If, friends, you should discover such a root of contention among yourselves or among others, you should strive to get rid of just that root of contention.

If you find no such root of contention..., then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in future.

Or (b) a monk is deceitful and malicious..., (c) a monk is envious and mean..., (d) a monk is cunning and deceitful..., (e) a monk is full of evil desires and wrong views..., (f) a monk is opinionated, obstinate and tenacious.

If, friends, you should discover such a root of contention among yourselves or among others, you should strive to get rid of just that root of contention. If you find no such root of contention..., then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in future.

(16) 'Six elements: the earth-, water-, fire-, air-, space-element, the consciousness-element.

(17) 'Six elements making for deliverance:

Here, a monk might say: (a) "I have developed the emancipation of the heart by loving-kindness, expanded it, made it a vehicle and a base, established, worked well on it, set it well in train. And yet ill-will still grips my heart."

He should be told: "No! do not say that! Do not misrepresent the Blessed Lord, it is not right to slander him thus, for he would not have said such a thing! Your words are unfounded and impossible.

If you develop the emancipation of the heart through loving-kindness, ill-will has no chance to envelop your heart. This emancipation through loving-kindness is the cure for ill-will."

Or (b) he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through compassion, and yet cruelty still grips my heart..."

Or (c) he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through sympathetic joy (mudita), and yet aversion still grips my heart..."

Or (d) he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through equanimity, and yet lust grips my heart."

Or (e) he might say: "I have developed the signless emancipation of the heart, and yet my heart still hankers after signs..."

Or (f) he might say: "The idea 'I am' is repellent to me, I pay no heed to the idea: 'I am this.' Yet doubts, uncertainties and problems still grip my heart..." (Reply to each in similar terms to (a)).

(18) 'Six unsurpassed things: [certain] sights, things heard, gains, trainings, forms of service, objects of recollection.

(19) 'Six subjects of recollection: the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, morality, renunciation, the devas.

(20) 'Six stable states: On seeing an object with the eye, hearing a sound..., smelling a smell..., tasting a flavour..., touching a tangible object...or cognising a mental object with the mind, one is neither pleased nor displeased, but remains equable, mindful and clearly aware.

(21) 'Six "species": Here,

(a) one born in dark conditions lives a dark life, (b) one born in dark conditions lives a bright life, (c) one born in dark conditions attains Nibbāna, which is neither dark nor bright,

(d) one born in bright conditions lives a dark life, (e) one born in bright conditions leads a bright life, (f) one born in bright conditions attains Nibbāna which is neither dark nor bright.

(22) 'Six perceptions conducive to penetration: the perception of impermanence, of suffering in impermanence, of impersonality in suffering, of abandoning, of dispassion (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (26)) and the perception of cessation.

'These are the [sets of] six things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...'

2.3. 'There are [sets of] seven things which have been perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

(1) 'Seven Ariyan treasures: faith, morality, moral shame, moral dread, learning, renunciation, wisdom.

(2) 'Seven factors of enlightenment: mindfulness, investigation of phenomena, energy, delight, tranquillity, concentration, equanimity.

(3) 'Seven requisites of concentration: right view, thought, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness.

(4) 'Seven wrong practices: Here, a monk lacks faith, lacks moral shame, lacks moral dread, has little learning, is slack, is unmindful, lacks wisdom.

(5) 'Seven right practices: Here, a monk has faith, moral shame and moral dread, has much learning, has aroused vigour, has established mindfulness, possesses wisdom.

(6) 'Seven qualities of the true man: Here, a monk is a knower of the Dhamma, of meanings, of self, of moderation, of the right time, of groups, of persons.

(7) 'Seven grounds for commendation, Here, a monk is keenly anxious

(a) to undertake the training, and wants to persist in this, (b) to make a close study of the Dhamma, (c) to get rid of desires, (d) to find solitude, (e) to arouse energy, (f) to develop mindfulness and discrimination, (g) to develop penetrative insight.

(8) 'Seven perceptions: perception of impermanence, of not- self, of foulness, of danger, of abandonment, of dispassion, of cessation.

(9) 'Seven powers: of faith, energy, moral shame, moral dread/mindfulness, concentration, wisdom.

(10) 'Seven stations of consciousness: Beings

(a) different in body and different in perception; (b) different in body and alike in perception; (c) alike in body and different in perception;

(d) alike in body and alike in perception; (e) who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Space; (f)...of Infinite Consciousness; (g)...of No-Thingness (as Sutta 13, verse 33).

(11) 'Seven persons worthy of offerings: The Both-Ways- Liberated the Wisdom-Liberated, the Body-Witness, the Vision-Attainer, the Faith-Liberated, the Dhamma-Devotee, the Faith-Devotee (as Sutta 28, verse 8). 

(12) 'Seven latent proclivities: sensuous greed, resentment, views, doubt, conceit, craving for becoming, ignorance.

(13) 'Seven fetters: complaisance, resentment (then as (12)).

(14) 'Seven rules for the pacification and settlement of disputed questions that have been raised:

(a) proceedings face-to-face, (b) recollection (sati), (c) mental derangement, (d) confession, (e) majority verdict, (f) habitual bad character, (g) "covering over with grass".

'These are the [sets of] seven things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord... So we should all recite them together. . .for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.'

[End of second recitation-section]

3.1. 'There are [sets of] eight things perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

(1) 'Eight wrong factors: wrong view...(the reverse of (2) below).

(2) 'Eight right factors: right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

(3) 'Eight persons worthy of offerings: the Stream-Winner and one who has practised to gain the fruit of Stream- Entry, the Once-Returner..., the Non-Returner..., the Arahant and one who has worked to gain the fruit of Arahantship.

(4) 'Eight occasions of indolence -

Here, a monk (a) has a job to do. He thinks: "I've got this job to do, but it will make me tired. I'll have a rest." So he lies down and does not stir up enough energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised.

Or (b) he has done some work, and thinks: "I've done this work, now I'm tired. I'll have a rest." So he lies down...

Or (c) he has to go on a journey, and thinks: "I have to go on this journey. It will make me tired..."

Or (d) he has been on a journey...

Or (e) he goes on the alms-round in a village or town and does not get his fill of food, whether coarse or fine, and he thinks: "I've gone for alms....my body is tired and useless..." Or (f) he goes on the alms-round. .. and gets his fill. . .He thinks: "I've gone for alms. . .and my body is heavy and useless as if I were pregnant.. ,"...

Or (g) he has developed some slight indisposition, and he thinks: "I'd better have a rest..."

Or (h) he is recuperating, having not long recovered from an illness, and he thinks: "My body is weak and useless. I'll have a rest." So he lies down and does not stir up enough energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised.

(5) 'Eight occasions for making an effort:

Here, a monk (a) has a job to do. He thinks: "I've got this job to do, but in doing it I won't find it easy to pay attention to the teaching of the Buddhas. So I will stir up sufficient energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised."

Or (b) he has done some work, and thinks: "Well, I did the job, but because of it I wasn't able to pay sufficient attention to the teaching of the Buddhas. So I will stir up sufficient energy..."

Or (c) he has to go on a journey...Or (d) he has been on a journey. He thinks: "I've been on this journey, but because of it I wasn't able to pay sufficient attention..."

Or (e) he goes for alms... without getting his fill... And he thinks: "So my body is light and fit. I'll stir up energy..." Or (f) he goes for alms... and gets his fill...And he thinks: "So my body is strong and fit. I'll stir up energy..."

Or (g) he has some slight indisposition... and he thinks: "This indisposition might get worse, so I'll stir up energy..."

Or (h) he is recuperating... and he thinks: "...it might be that the illness will recur. So I'll stir up energy..." Thus he stirs up sufficient energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised.

(6) 'Eight bases for giving:

One gives (a) as occasion offers, (b) from fear, (c) thinking: "He gave me something", (d) thinking: "He will give me something", (e) thinking: "It is good to give",

(f) thinking: "I am cooking something, they are not. It would not be right not to give something to those who are not cooking", (g) thinking: "If I make this gift I shall acquire a good reputation", (h) in order to adorn and prepare one's heart.

(7) 'Eight kinds of rebirth due to generosity:

Here, (a) someone gives an ascetic or Brahmin food, drink, clothes, transport, garlands, perfumes and ointments, sleeping accommodation, a dwelling, or lights, and he hopes to receive a return for his gifts.

He sees a rich Khattiya or Brahmin or householder living in full enjoyment of the pleasures of the five senses, and he thinks: "If only when I die I may be reborn as one of these rich people!" He sets his heart on this thought, fixes it and develops it.

And this thought, being launched at such a low level and not developed to a higher level leads to rebirth right there.

But I say this of a moral person, not of an immoral one. The mental aspiration of a moral person is effective through its purity.

Or (b) he gives such gifts and, having heard that the devas in the realm of the Four Great Kings live long, are good-looking and lead a happy life, he thinks: "If only I could be reborn there!"

Or he similarly aspires to rebirth in the heavens of (c) the Thirty-Three Gods, (d) the Yāma devas, (e) the Tusita devas, (f) the Nimmānarati devas, (g) the Paranimmita-vasavatti devas.

And this thought leads to rebirth right there... The mental aspiration of a moral person is effective through its purity. Or (h) he similarly aspires to rebirth in the world of Brahma...

But I say this of a moral person, not an immoral one, one freed from passion, not one still swayed by passion. The mental aspiration of [such] a moral person is effective through liberation from passion.

(8) 'Eight assemblies: the assembly of Khattiyas, Brahmins, householders, ascetics, devas of the Realm of the Four Great Kings, of the Thirty-Three Gods, of māras, of Brahmas (as Sutta 16, verse 3.21).

(9) 'Eight worldly conditions (loka-dhamma): gain and loss, fame and shame, blame and praise, happiness and misery.

(10) 'Eight stages of mastery:

(a) perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, limited and beautiful or ugly; (b) (as (a) but) unlimited; (c) not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, limited...; (d) (as (c) but) unlimited; not perceiving forms internally, one perceives forms that are (e) blue, [261] (f) yellow, (g) red, (h) white (as Sutta 16, verse 3.25—32).

(11) 'Eight liberations:

(a) possessing form, one sees forms; (b) not perceiving material forms in oneself, one sees them outside; (c) thinking: "It is beautiful", one becomes intent on it;

one enters (d) the Sphere of Infinite Space; (e)... the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness; (f)...the Sphere of No-Thingness;

(g) ... the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception;

(h) ... the Cessation of Perception and Feeling (as Sutta 15, verse 35).

"These are the [sets of] eight things...'

3.2. 'There are [sets of] nine things...

(1) 'Nine causes of malice: Malice is stirred up by the thought:

(a) "He has done me an injury", (b) "He is doing me an injury", (c) "He will do me an injury", (d)(f) "He has done, is doing, will do an injury to someone who is dear and pleasant to me", (g)(i) "he has done, is doing, will do a favour to someone who is hateful and unpleasant to me."

(2) 'Nine ways of overcoming malice: Malice is overcome by the thought: (a)(i) "He has done me an injury. . ." (as (1)). "What good would it do [to harbour malice]?"

(3) 'Nine abodes of beings:

(a) Beings different in body and different in perception, (b) beings different in body and alike in perception, (c) beings alike in body and different in perception,

(d) beings alike in body and alike in perception, (e) the Realm of Unconscious Beings, (f) the Realm of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, (g) beings who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Space,

(h) beings who have attained to the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, (i) beings who have attained to the Sphere of No-Thingness (as Sutta 15, verse 33).

(4) 'Nine unfortunate, inopportune times for leading the holy life:

(a) A Tathagata has been born in the world, Arahant, fully-enlightened Buddha, and the Dhamma is taught which leads to calm and perfect Nibbāna, which leads to enlightenment as taught by the Well-Farer, and this person is born in a hell-state,...

(b)... among the animals, (c)... among the petas, (d). .. among the asuras, (e)... in a long-lived group of devas, or (f) he is born in the border regions among foolish barbarians where there is no access for monks and nuns, or male and female lay-followers,

or (g) he is born in the Middle Country, but he has wrong views and distorted vision, thinking:

"There is no giving, offering or sacrificing, there is no fruit or result of good or bad deeds; there is not this world and the next world; there are no parents and there is no spontaneous rebirth;

there are no ascetics and Brahmins in the world who, having attained to the highest and realised for themselves the highest knowledge about this world and the next, proclaim it";

or (h)...he is born in the Middle Country but lacks wisdom and is stupid, or is deaf and dumb and cannot tell whether something has been well said or ill said; or else...

(i) no Tathagata has arisen...and this person is born in the Middle Country and is intelligent, not stupid, and not deaf or dumb, and well able to tell whether something has been well said or ill said.

(5) 'Nine successive abidings: [the jhānas and Spheres of Infinite Space, Infinite Consciousness, No-Thingness, Neither- Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, and Cessation of Perception and Feeling].

(6) 'Nine successive cessations:

By the attainment of the first jhāna, perceptions of sensuality cease;

by the attainment of the second jhāna, thinking and pondering cease;

by the attainment of the third jhāna, delight ceases;

by the attainment of the fourth jhāna, in- and out-breathing ceases;

by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite Space, the perception of materiality ceases,

by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Space ceases;

by the attainment of the Sphere of No-Thingness, the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness ceases;

by the attainment of the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, the perception of the Sphere of No-Thingness ceases;

by the attainment of the Cessation-of-Perception-and-Feeling, perception and feeling cease.

These are the [sets of] nine things...'

3.3. 'There are [sets of] ten things perfectly proclaimed by the Lord...

(1) 'Ten things that give protection: Here a monk

(a) is moral, he lives restrained according to the restraint of the discipline, persisting in right behaviour, seeing danger in the slightest fault, he keeps to the rules of training;

(b) he has learnt much, and bears in mind and retains what he has learnt.

In these teachings, beautiful in the beginning, the middle and the ending, which in spirit and in letter proclaim the absolutely perfected and purified holy life, he is deeply learned, he remembers them, recites them, recites them, reflects on them and penetrates them with vision;

(c) he is a friend, associate and intimate of good people; (d) he is affable, endowed with gentleness and patience, quick to grasp instruction;

(e) whatever various jobs there are to be done for his fellow-monks, he is skilful, not lax, using foresight in carrying them out, and is good at doing and planning;

(f) he loves the Dhamma and delights in hearing it, he is especially fond of the advanced doctrine and discipline; (g) he is content with any kind of requisites-, robes, alms-food, lodging, medicines in case of illness;

(h) he ever strives to arouse energy, to get rid of unwholesome states, to establish wholesome states, untiringly and energetically striving to keep such good states and never shaking off the burden;

(i) he is mindful, with a great capacity for clearly recalling things done and said long ago;

(j) he is wise, with wise perception of arising and passing away, that Ariyan perception that leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

(2) 'Ten objects for the attainment of absorption:

He perceives the Earth-Kasiṇa, the Water-Kasiṇa, the Fire-Kasiṇa, the Wind-Kasiṇa, the Blue Kasiṇa, the Yellow Kasiṇa, the Red Kasiṇa, the White Kasiṇa, the Space-Kasiṇa, the Consciousness Kasiṇa, above, below, on all sides, undivided, unbounded.

(3) 'Ten unwholesome courses of action: taking life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, lying speech, slander, rude speech, idle chatter, greed, malevolence, wrong view.

(4) Ten wholesome courses of action: avoidance of taking life...(and so on, as (3) above).

(5) Ten Ariyan dispositions: Here a monk

(a) has got rid of five factors, (b) possesses six factors, (c) has established one guard, (d) observes the four supports, (e) has got rid of individual beliefs, (f) has quite abandoned quest, (g) is pure of motive, (h) has tranquillised his emotions, is well liberated (i) in heart, and (j) by wisdom.

How has he got rid of five factors?

(a) Here, he has got rid of sensuality, ill-will, sloth-and-torpor, worry-and-flurry, and doubt;

(b) what six factors does he possess? On seeing an object with the eye, hearing a sound..., smelling a smell..., tasting a flavour..., touching a tangible object..., or cognising a mental object with the mind, he is neither pleased nor displeased, but remains equable, mindful and clearly aware;

(c) how has he established the one guard? By guarding his mind with mindfulness;

(d) what are the four supports? He judges that one thing is to be pursued, one thing endured, one thing avoided, one thing suppressed (as verse 1.11 (8));

(e) how has he got rid of individual beliefs? Whatever individual beliefs are held by the majority of ascetics and Brahmins he has dismissed, abandoned, rejected, let go;

(f) how is he one who has quite abandoned quests? He has abandoned the quest for sense-desires, for rebirth, for the holy life; (g) how is he pure of motive? He has abandoned thoughts of sensuality, ill-will, cruelty;

(h) how is he one who has tranquillised his emotions?

Because, having given up pleasure and pain with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain which is purified by equanimity, and this is the fourth jhāna;

(i) how is he well emancipated in heart? He is liberated from the thought of greed, hatred and delusion;

(j) how is he well liberated by wisdom? He understands: "For me greed, hatred and delusion are abandoned, cut off at the root, like a palm-tree stump, destroyed and incapable of growing again."

(6) Ten qualities of the non-learner: The non- learner's right view, right thought; right speech, right action, right livelihood; right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration; right knowledge, right liberation.

These are the [sets of] ten things which have been perfectly set forth by the Lord who knows and sees, the fully-enlightened Buddha.

So we should all recite them together without disagreement, so that this holy life may be long-lasting and established for a long time to come, thus to be for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.'

3.4. And when the Lord had stood up, he said to the Venerable Sāriputta: 'Good, good, Sāriputta! Well indeed have you proclaimed the way of chanting together for the monks!'

These things were said by the Venerable Sāriputta, and the Teacher confirmed them. The monks were delighted and rejoiced at the Venerable Sāriputta's words.