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Chhāṇdogya Upanishad | English Classic

Chhāṇdogya Upanishad | English Classic

॥ छान्दोग्योपनिषद् ॥
|| chāndogyopaniṣad ||

The Sāma Veda includes among its treasures the Chhāṇdogya Brāhmaṇa, consisting of ten parts; of these, the last eight constitute the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

In turn, the eight parts of the Upanishad may be broadly divided into two sections: The first, consisting of five parts, deals with upāsanā, or ritualistic worship with emphasis on meditation.

The second section, of three parts, discusses certain fundamental doctrines of the Vedanta philosophy: in the sixth part, the Vedāntic dictum “tat tvam asi,” or “That thou art”; in the seventh part, the doctrine Infinity; and in the eighth part, the doctrine of Ātman.


Part 1 , Chapter ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Part 2 , Chapter ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Part 3 , Chapter ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Part 4 , Chapter ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Part 5 , Chapter ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Part 6 , Chapter ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Part 7 , Chapter ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 2425 26

Part 8 , Chapter ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15


Invocation

ॐ आप्यायन्तु ममाङ्गानि वाक्प्राणश्च्क्षुः
श्रोत्रमथो बलमिन्द्रियाणि च सर्वाणि ।
सर्वं ब्रह्मौपनिषदं माहं ब्रह्म निराकुर्यां मा मा ब्रह्म
निराकरोदनिकारणमस्त्वनिकारणं मेऽस्तु ।
तदात्मनि निरते य उपनिषत्सु धर्मास्ते
मयि सन्तु ते मयि सन्तु ॥

Om. May the different limbs of my body, my tongue, prāṇa, eyes, ears, and my strength, and also all the other sense-organs, be nourished! All, indeed, is Brahman, as is declared in the Upanishads.

May I never deny Brahman! May Brahman never deny me! May there never be denial on the part of Brahman! May there never be denial on my part!

May all the virtues described in the Upanishads belong to me, who am devoted to Ātman! Yea, may they all belong to me!

॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥
Om Peace! Peace! Peace!

Part 1

The Chhāṇdogya Upanishad begins with a discussion of the Udgītha. The Udgītha is a hymn of the Sāma Veda sung by the Udgātri priest during a sacrifice, as a part of that sacrifice. It begins with Om, which, too, is called the Udgītha.

The golden person, with golden beard and golden hair, seen by the yogis as dwelling in the solar orb is the same as the Udgītha; likewise the person seen in the eye. The former represents the Supreme Self, and the latter, the individual self; they are identical. The gist of the two chapters is that one should meditate on the identity of the Udgītha (Om), the Supreme Self, and the individual self; through this meditation one obtains the fulfilment of all desires.

Chapter 1

Meditation On Om

1

One ought to meditate upon the syllable Om, the Udgītha;
because people sing beginning with Om.

Of this (now follows) the explanation.

2

The essence of [all] these beings is the earth;
the essence of the earth is water;
the essence of water is plants;
the essence of plants is a person;
the essence of a person is speech;
the essence of speech is the Ṛig Veda;
the essence of the Ṛig Veda is the Sāma Veda;
the essence of the Sāma Veda is the Udgītha [which is Om].

3

That Udgītha (Om) is the best of all essences,
the supreme, deserving the highest place, the eighth.

4

What, then, is the Rik? What is the Sāman? What is the Udgītha?
This is to be considered.

5

Speech, indeed, is the Rik;
the vital breath (prāṇa) is the Sāman;
the syllable Om is the Udgītha.

Speech and the prāṇa, or the Rik and the Sāman, form a couple.

6

And that couple become united in the syllable Om.
When a pair come together they fulfil each other’s desire.

7

He who knows this [as stated above]
and meditates on the syllable Om, the Udgītha,
becomes, indeed, a fulfiller of desires.

8

This syllable Om is used to give assent,
for wherever one assents to something, one says Om (yes).

Now, what is assent is gratification.
He who knows this and meditates
on the syllable Om, the Udgītha,
becomes, indeed, a gratifier of desires.

9

By means of this [syllable] the threefold knowledge proceeds:

When the [adhvaryu] priest gives an order [in a sacrifice], he says Om.
When the [hotri] priest recites [the hymn], he says Om.
When the [Udgātri] priest sings [the Sāman], he says Om.

All this is done for the glory of the Imperishable [Ātman]
by the greatness of that syllable and by its essence.

10

[It may be contended] that he who knows this
[true meaning of the syllable Om]
and he who does not,
perform the same sacrifice
[and therefore must reap the same fruit].

But [this is not so].
[The results of] knowledge and ignorance are different.

Work that is done with knowledge,
faith, and the Upanishad (i.e. meditation on the deities)
produces the more powerful fruit.

This is, verily, the [detailed] explanation of the syllable Om.

Here ends Chapter 1 of Part 1 of the Chhāndogya Upanishad.

Chapter 2

Meditation On Om As The Prāṇa

1

When the Devas and Asuras,
both offspring of Prajāpati, fought with each other,
the gods took hold of the Udgītha,
thinking that with this they would vanquish the Asuras.

2

They (i.e. the Devas) meditated on the Udgītha (Om) as the prāṇa,
which functions through the nose.
But the Asuras pierced it (i.e. the prāṇa) with evil.

Therefore with it (i.e. the breath) one smells both
what is pleasant-smelling and what is foul-smelling.
For the breath is pierced by evil.

3

Then they meditated on the Udgītha as speech.
But the Asuras pierced it with evil.

Therefore one speaks both truth and falsehood.
For speech is pierced by evil.

4

Then they meditated on the Udgītha as the eye.
But the Asuras pierced it with evil.

Therefore one sees both what is sightly and what is unsightly.
For the eye is pierced by evil.

5

Then they meditated on the Udgītha as the ear.
But the Asuras pierced it with evil.

Therefore one hears both
what is worth hearing and what is not worth hearing.
For the ear is pierced by evil.

6

Then they meditated on the Udgītha as the mind.
But the Asuras pierced it with evil.

Therefore one thinks both proper and improper thoughts.
For the mind is pierced by evil.

7

Then they meditated on the Udgītha as the principal (mukhya) prāṇa.
But as a clod of earth hitting a stone is scattered,
even so the Asuras were destroyed when they hit it.

8

As a clod of earth is scattered when hitting a stone,
thus will he be scattered who wishes evil
to one who knows this or who injures him;
for he is a solid stone.

9

With this (i.e. the principal vital breath) one does not discern
what is pleasant-smelling and what is foul-smelling;
for it is unsmitten by evil.

Whatever a person eats or drinks with it (the principal vital breath) supports the other prāṇas.

That is why they depart when, at the time of death,
it no longer supports them [by eating and drinking].
It opens the mouth at the time of death
[as if the dying man wished to eat].

10-13

Angira meditated on the Udgītha as the principal prāṇa.
People call it (i.e. the prāṇa) Aṅgiras,
because it is the essence (rasa) of the limbs (aṅga).

Brihaspati meditated on the Udgītha as the principal prāṇa.
People call it (the prāṇa) Brihaspati,
because speech is great (Brihat)
and it is the lord (pati) of speech.

Āyāsya meditated on the Udgītha as the principal prāṇa.
People regard it (the prāṇa) as Āyāsya;
because it comes (ayate) from the mouth (āsya).

Vaka, the son of Dālbhya, knew it (the prāṇa);
he became the Udgātri priest of the sacrificers
dwelling in the Naimisha forest.
By singing [the Udgītha) he fulfilled all their desires.

14

He who knows this [as described above]
and meditates upon the imperishable Udgītha (Om)
obtains all his desires by singing [the Udgītha].

So much [for the Udgītha as meditated on] with reference to the body.

Here ends Chapter 2 of Part 1 of the Chhāndogya Upanishad.

Chapter 3

Meditation On The Udgītha As The Sun And The Vyāna

1

Now [is described] the meditation on the Udgītha with reference to the gods:

One should meditate on the Udgītha
as [the sun] who gives warmth.

When he (the sun) rises he sings [the Udgītha]
for [the benefit of] all creatures.
When he rises he destroys darkness and fear.

He who knows this becomes the destroyer of darkness and fear.

2

This [prāṇa] and that [sun] are the same. This is warm and that is warm.
This they call svara (what goes out), and that, Pratyāsvara (what returns).

Therefore one should meditate on the Udgītha as this and that.

3

One should meditate on the Udgītha as the vyāna.

That which one breathes out is the prāṇa,
and that which one breathes in is the apāna.
That which is the junction
of the prāṇa and the apāna is the vyāna.

This vyāna is speech.
Therefore when one utters speech
one stops the prāṇa and the apāna.

4

That which is speech is the Rik.
Therefore when a man utters a Rik
he neither breathes out nor breathes in.
That which is the Rik is the Sāman.

Therefore when a man sings a Sāman,
he neither breathes out nor breathes in.

That which is the Sāman is the Udgītha.
Therefore when a man sings the Udgītha
he neither breathes out nor breathes in.

5

And other works also which require strength,
such as the kindling of fire by rubbing,
running a race, and stringing a strong bow,
are performed without breathing out or breathing in.

Therefore one should meditate on the Udgītha as the vyāna.

6

Now, one ought to meditate upon the letters of the Udgītha—i.e., of the word “Udgītha”.

Breath is “ud” (उद्), because by the breath one rises.
Speech is “gī” (गी ), because speeches are called “giraḥ".
Food is “tha” (थ); because on food does all this subsist.

7

Heaven is “ud” (उद्), the sky “gī” (गी ) and the earth “tha” (थ).
The sun is “ud” (उद्)the air “gī” (गी ) and the fire “tha” (थ).
The Sāma-veda “ud” (उद्), the Yajur-veda “gī” (गी ), and the Ṛig-veda “tha” (थ).
Speech yields the milk, and the milk is Speech,
and he becomes rich in food, an eater of food.

8

Next follows the fulfilment of prayers.

One should thus meditate on the object
one wishes to obtain through meditation:
he (i.e. the Udgātri priest) should meditate
on the Sāman with which he is going to chant the praise.

9

He (the Udgātri priest) should meditate
on the Rik in which that Sāman occurs,
on the rishi to whom it was revealed,
and on the deity whom he is going to praise.

10

He (the Udgātri priest) should meditate
on the metre in which he is going to chant the praise;
he should meditate on the hymn
by which he is going to chant the praise.

11

He (the Udgātri priest) should meditate
on the quarter of space
facing which he is going to chant the praise.

12

Finally, he (the Udgātri priest) should meditate
on himself, and then on the object desired,
and chant the praise correctly.

[Thus] will be quickly fulfilled for him the desire,
desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise,
yea, desiring which he may offer the hymn of praise.

Here ends Chapter 3 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 4

Meditation On Om As Fearlessness And Immortality

1

The syllable OM, called the Udgītha, should be meditated upon;
for people sing the Udgītha, beginning with Om.

Now follows the [detailed] explanation [of this syllable].

2

The gods, afraid of death,
entered upon the threefold knowledge.
They covered themselves with the metrical hymns.
Because they covered themselves with the hymns,
the hymns are called chhandas.

3

As a fisherman might observe a fish in [shallow] water,
so death observed the gods in the Rik, the Yajus, and the Sāman.

They too came to know this,
rose from the Rik, the Yajus, and the Sāman,
and entered the Svara (Om) alone.

4

When a man has mastered the Rig-Veda he loudly utters Om;
he does the same when he has mastered the Sāma-Veda and the Yajur Veda.

The Svara is the syllable “Om”; it is immortal and fearless.
The gods, by entering it, became immortal and fearless.

5

He who, knowing this,
sings the praise of the syllable [Om]
enters this same syllable, called the Svara,
which is immortal and fearless.
Having entered it,
he becomes immortal as the gods are immortal.

Here ends Chapter 4 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 5

Meditation On Om As The Sun And The Prāṇa

1

Now, verily, that which is the Udgītha is the Prāṇava;
that which is the Prāṇava is the Udgītha.
Yonder sun is the Udgītha.
It is the Prāṇava, because it moves along uttering Om.

2

Kaushitaki [in olden times] said to his son:

“I sang the praise of the sun [regarding it as one with its rays];
therefore you are my only [son].
Meditate [on the rays and the sun as different from each another],
and you will have many sons.”

So much with reference to the gods.

3

Now with reference to the body:

One should meditate on the Udgītha as the principal prāṇa,
for it (i.e. the prāṇa) moves [in the body] uttering Om.

4

Kaushitaki [in olden times] said to his son:

“I sang the praise [of the principal prāṇa alone];
therefore you are my only [son].
Meditate on the Udgītha as the manifold prāṇa,
and you will have many sons.”

5

Now, verily, that which is the Udgītha is the Prāṇava;
that which is the Prāṇava is the Udgītha.

He (i.e. the Udgātri priest) who knows this,
rectifies from the seat of the hotri priest
any mistake committed by him (the Udgātri priest),
yea he rectifies it.

Here ends Chapter 5 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 6

The Luminous Person In The Solar Orb

1

This [earth] is the Rik, and fire is the Sāman.
This Sāman (i.e. fire) rests on that Rik (i.e. the earth).
Therefore the Sāman is sung resting on the Rik.
is the earth, ama is fire;
thus they (the earth and fire) are designated as Sāma.

2

The mid-region is the Rik, and the air is the Sāman.
This Sāman (i.e. the air) rests on that Rik (i.e. the mid-region).
Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik.
is the mid-region, ama is the air;
thus they (the mid-region and the air) are designated as Sāma.

3

Heaven is the Rik, and the sun is the Sāman.
This Sāman (i.e. the sun) rests on that Rik (i.e., heaven).
Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik.
is heaven, ama is the sun;
thus they (heaven and the sun) are designated as Sāma.

4

The stars are the Rik, and the moon is the Sāman.
This Sāman (i.e. the moon) rests on that Rik (i.e. the stars).
Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik.
is the stars, ama is the moon;
thus they (the stars and the moon) are designated as Sāma.

5

Now, the white radiance of the sun is the Rik,
and its blue intense darkness is the Sāman.
This Sāman (i.e. the darkness) rests on that Rik (i.e. the radiance).
Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik.

6-7

is the white radiance of the sun, ama is its blue intense darkness;
thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are designated as Sāma,

Now, the golden person who is seen in the sun,
who has a golden beard and golden hair,
who is golden to the very tips of his nails—

his eyes are like a lotus flower, red as the rump of a monkey.
His name is Ut, for he has risen (udita) above all evil.
He, too, who knows this rises above all evil.

8

The Rik and the Sāman are his joints,
and therefore he is the Udgītha.

And therefore [the Udgātri priest is called] the Udgātā;
for he is the singer (gātā) of this [person named Ut],

He (i.e. the golden person) is the lord of the worlds beyond that [sun],
and of all the wishes of the gods [inhabiting those worlds].

So much with reference to the gods.

Here ends Chapter 6 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 7

The Person In The Eye

1

Now with reference to the body:

Speech is the Rik and the prāṇa is the Sāman.

This Sāman (the prāṇa) rests on that Rik (speech).
Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik.

(सा) is speech, ama (अम) is the prāṇa;
thus they (speech and the prāṇa) are designated as Sāma.

2

The eye is the Rik and the Ātman is the Sāman.

This Sāman (the Ātman) rests on that Rik (the eye).
Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik.

(सा) is the eye, ama (अम) is the Ātman;
thus they (the eye and the Ātman) are designated as Sāma.

3

The ear is the Rik and the mind is the Sāman.

This Sāman (the mind) rests on that Rik (the ear).
Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik.

(सा) is the ear, ama (अम) is the mind;
thus they (the ear and the mind) are designated as Sāma.

4

Now, the white radiance of the eye is the Rik
and its blue intense darkness is the Sāman.

This Sāman (darkness) rests on that Rik (radiance).
Therefore the Sāman is sung, resting on the Rik.

(सा) is the white radiance of the eye, ama (अम) is its blue intense darkness;
thus they (the radiance and the darkness) are designated as Sāma.

5

Now, the person who is seen in the eye is the Rik,
he is the Sāman, he is the Uktha, he is the Yajus, he is Brahman.
The form of this person [in the eye]
is the same as the form of that person [in the sun].
The joints of this person [in the eye]
are the same as the joints of that person [in the sun];
the name of this one (Ut) is the same as the name of that one.

6

He is the lord of the worlds
which spread beneath that (i.e. the eye)
and also of all the wishes of men.

Therefore all who sing to the vinā sing of him,
and from him they obtain wealth.

7

He who, knowing this (i.e. the Udgītha), sings the Sāman, sings to both.

Through that (i.e.; the person in the sun)
he obtains the world beyond that (i.e. the sun)
and the wishes of the gods.

8-9

Likewise, through this (i.e. the person in the eye),
he obtains the worlds that spread beneath that (i.e. the eye)
and all the wishes of men.

Therefore an Udgātri priest who knows this
may say [to the sacrificer for whom he acts as priest]:
“What desire of yours shall I fulfil by singing?”

For he who, knowing this, sings the Sāman
is able to fulfil wishes through his singing of the Sāman,
yea, through his singing of the Sāman.

Here ends Chapter 7 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 8

The story of Pravāhaṇa (I)

1

There were three men versed in the Udgītha:
Śilaka the son of Śalāvat,
Chaikitāyaṇa of the line of Dālbhya,
and Pravāhaṇa the son of Jivala.

They said:
“We are indeed versed in the Udgītha,
Let us have a discussion of the Udgītha.”

2

“Let it be so,” they said and sat down.

Then Pravāhaṇa the son of Jivala said:

“Revered Sirs, you speak first,
and I shall listen to what the two Brahmins have to say.”

3

Then Śilaka the son of Śalāvat
said to Chaikitāyaṇa of the line of Dālbhya:
“Well, may I question you?”
“Do ask,” he said.

4-5

“What is the support of the Sāman?”
“Tone (svara),” he replied.
“What is the support of tone? ‘‘The prāṇa (vital breath), he replied.
“What is the support of the prāṇa? “Food, he replied.
“What is the support of food? “Water, he replied.
“What is the support of water?”
“Yonder world (heaven)”, he replied.
“What is the support of yonder world?
“Let no one carry the Sāman beyond the heavenly world.
We place the Sāman in the heavenly world,
for the Sāman is praised as heaven.

6

Then Śilaka the son of Śalāvat
said to Chaikitāyaṇa of the line of Dālbhya:
“O Dālbhya your Sāman is not firmly established.
If at this time anyone [who knew the support of the Sāman]
would say: “Your head shall fall off,”
surely your head would fall off.”

7

“Well then, revered Sir, let me learn it from you,” said Chaikitāyaṇa.
“Learn it,” replied Śilaka.
“What is the support of that world?”
“This world”, he replied.
“What is the support of this world?”
“Let no one carry the Sāman beyond this world, which is its support.
We place the Sāman in this world as its support,
for the Sāman is praised as the support (i.e. this world).

8

Then said Pravāhaṇa the son of Jivala:

“O son of Śalāvat, your Sāman (i.e. this earth) has an end.
If at this time anyone [who knew the support of the Sāman]
would say: “Your head shall fall off,”
surely your head would fall off.”
“Well then, let me learn this from you, revered Sir.” said Śilaka.
“Learn it,” said Pravāhaṇa.

Here ends Chapter 8 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 9

The Story Of Pravāhaṇa (II)

1

“What is the support of this world?” asked Śilaka.
“The ākāśa,” said Pravāhaṇa.
“For all these beings
are created from the ākāśa and return to the ākāśa.
The ākāśa is greater than these;
therefore the ākāśa is the supreme support.”

2

This is the Udgītha (Om), the most excellent; this is endless.
He who, knowing this, meditates on the Udgītha
obtains the most excellent [life] and wins the most excellent worlds.

3-4

Atidhanvan the son of Śunaka,
having taught this [Udgītha] to Udaraśāndilya, said:

“As long as any of your descendants know this Udgītha,
their life shall be the most excellent in this world,
and likewise in the other world.”

He who thus knows the Udgītha and meditates on it
—his life shall be the most excellent
in this world, and likewise in the other world,
yea, in the other world.

Here ends Chapter 9 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 10

The Story Of Ushasti (I)

1

When the crops of the Kurus were destroyed by thunderstorms,
Ushasti the son of Chakra, with his child-wife,
lived in a deplorable condition
in the village of a man who owned an elephant.

2

He (Ushasti) begged food from the owner of the elephant,
who was eating some wretched beans.
He (the owner of the elephant) said:
“I have nothing but what is set before me.”

3

Ushasti said: “Give me these.”
He gave the beans and said:
“Here is some water [left over from my drinking].”
Ushasti said: “If I drink this,
I will then be drinking what has been left by another.”

4

The owner of the elephant said:
“Were not those beans also left over [and therefore unclean]?”
Ushasti replied:
"I should not have lived if I had not eaten them;
but I can get water wherever I like.”

5

Having himself eaten, Ushasti gave his wife what was left.
But she, having eaten before,
took them (i.e. the beans) and put them away.

6

Next morning, on awaking, he said:
“Alas, if I could get even a little to eat, I might earn some money.
The king over here is going to perform a sacrifice;
he would choose me for all the priestly offices.”

7

His wife said to him: “Here, my husband, are the beans.”
After eating them, he went to the sacrifice that was about to be performed.

8

He saw there the assembled Udgātri priests and sat near them
in the place where they would sing the hymns.

He said to the prastotri priest:

9

“O prastotri priest,
if without knowing the deity
that belongs to the Prastāva,
you sing the Prastāva,
your head will fall off.”

10-11

In the same manner he addressed the Udgātri priest:

“O Udgātri priest,
if without knowing the deity
that belongs to the Udgītha,
you sing the Udgītha,
your head will fall off.”

In the same manner he addressed the pratihārtri priest:

“O pratihārtri priest,
if without knowing the deity
that belongs to the Pratihāra,
you sing the Pratihāra,
your head will fall off.”

They all stopped [performing their duties] and sat in silence.

Here ends Chapter 10 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 11

The Story of Ushasti (II)

1

Then the sacrificer said to him (Ushasti):
"I should like to know who you are, revered Sir.”
“I am Ushasti the son of Chakra,” he replied,

2

He (the sacrificer) said:
“Revered Sir, I looked for you to perform all these priestly offices,
but not finding you, Sir, I have chosen others.”

3

“But now, Sir, please take up all the priestly offices.”
“So be it,” said Ushasti,
“but let these [priests], with my permission, sing the hymns of praise.
You will, however, give me as much wealth as you give them.”
“So be it,” said the sacrificer.

4

Thereupon the prastotri priest approached him and said:

“Sir, you said to me:
“O prastotri priest,
if without knowing the deity
that belongs to the Prastāva,
you sing the Prastāva,
your head will fall off.”

Which is that deity?”

5

Ushasti said:

“The prāṇa [is that deity].
For all these beings merge in the prāṇa alone,
and from the prāṇa alone do they rise.
This is the deity which belongs to the Prastāva.

If without knowing him you had chanted the Prastāva
after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen off.”

6

Then the Udgātri priest approached him and said:

“Sir, you said to me:
“O Udgātri priest,
if without knowing the deity
that belongs to the Udgītha,
you sing the Udgītha,
your head will fall off.”

Which is that deity?”

7

Ushasti said:

“The sun [is that deity].
For all these beings praise the sun which is high up.
This is the deity which belongs to the Udgītha.

If without knowing him you had chanted the Udgītha
after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen off.”

8

Then the pratihārtri priest approached him and said:

“Sir, you said to me:
‘O pratihārtri priest,
if without knowing the deity
that belongs to the Pratihāra,
you sing the Pratihāra, your head will fall off.’

Which is that deity?”

9

Ushasti said:

“Food [is that deity].
For all these beings take food and live.
This is the deity that belongs to the Pratihāra.

If without knowing him you had chanted the Pratihāra
after having been cursed by me, your head would have fallen off.”

Here ends Chapter 11 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 12

The Udgītha of the Dogs

1

Now follows the Udgītha of the dogs:

One day, Vaka the son of Dālbhya,
or as he was also called, Glāva the son of Mitra,
went forth to study the Vedas.

2

A white dog appeared before him.
Other dogs, gathering around, said to him (i.e. the white dog):
“Revered Sir, please sing for us,
so that we may obtain food; we are hungry.”

3

He (the white dog) said to them: “Come to me here tomorrow morning.”
Vaka the son of Dālbhya, or as he was also called, Glāva the son of Mitra, kept watch.

4

Just as the priests move along, holding to one another,
when they are about to sing praises with the Vahishpavamāna hymn,
so did the dogs move along.
Then they sat down and uttered [the syllable] him (र्हिं).

5

Om! Let us eat! Om! Let us drink!
Om! Let the sun, who is the luminous deity (deva),
the giver of rain (Varuṇa), the lord of creatures (Prajāpati), bring food here!

[Now a prayer to the sun:]
O lord of food, bring food here, bring it here. Om!

Here ends Chapter 12 of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.

Chapter 13

The mystical meaning of the stobha syllables

1

This earth is verily the syllable hāu (हाउ);
the air is the syllable hāi (हाइ);
the moon is the syllable atha (अथ);
the self is the syllable iha (इह);
the fire is the syllable i (इ).

2

The sun is the syllable u (उ);
the invocation is the syllable e (ए);
the Viśve devas are the syllable au-ho-i (औहोयि);
Prajāpati is the syllable him (र्हिं);
the prāṇa is the syllable svara;
food is the syllable yā (या);
Virāt is the syllable vāk (वाक्).

3

Indefinable is the thirteenth stobha,
namely, the variable syllable huṁ (हुं).

4

To him who knows this secret knowledge of the Sāmans,
speech yields milk, and milk is speech.
He becomes the possessor of food and the eater of food—
he who knows this, yea, he who knows this.

Here ends Chapter 13
of Part One of the Chhāṇdogya Upanishad.