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Shandilya Bhakti Sūtras

Shandilya Bhakti Sūtras

Śrī Śāṇḍilya is a great rishi of an ancient time. His name is found in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa (10.6.3). In Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad (IV. 6. 1,3 and VI. 5.4) - We find Śrī Śāṇḍilya in the line of Vedic rishis, but not his teachings except the name.

Whereas in the Chāṇḍogya Upanishad (III. 14.4.) - where although it is very brief but a vital lesson he has given, which affirms the glorious path of Devotion to the All-Blissful Supreme Godhead, Who possesses All-Transcendental Characte­ristics:

Here we find the famous sayings and learn: Brahman is the Cause, Support and Goal of the universe. From Him beings are born, by Whom they live and to Whom they finally repair:

According to one's faith or Devotion here in this world, thus does such one become on departing hence, The Supreme Godhead is Both: Immanent and Transcendent, and the final Goal of every being is to attain unalloyed devotion to Him.

 There is one Śāṇḍilya Upanishad also. Śāṇḍilya, when speaks about Pāñcharātra Agamas, he states that if anybody denies authenticity of the Pāñcharātra, delinking them from the Vedas, he affirms that the Vedas themselves have got no value to him because Pāñcharātras are the essence of the Vedas.

Further we find that while a number of sages approached him in the mount Gandhamādana with inquiry concerning the manner in which the ultimate Reality can be known, Śāṇḍilya replied: "This science is very secret and ancient and this can be given only to true believers who are ardently devoted to their spiritual preceptors"..

Śāṇḍilya's Bhakti Sūtras are numbering all total one hundred only but within this compass he has given an unambiguous Doctrine of unalloyed Bhakti and demons­trates that Jñāna is like the loose flesh hanging from the neck of a goat which is good for nothing.

Bhakti is ahaitukī (causeless): there is no precondition for obtaining Bhakti by a fallen soul. Bhakti is the natural characteristic of a freed soul; and he also agrees with Śrī Nārada that it is only when a Jīva gets a chance, by dint of previous unknown Sukriti, to have satsang — Bhakti gets manifested in the soul.

Bhakti is transcendental process and Śrī Nāma Sankirtana is the best method which brings ecstasy. He also touches on Rāgānugā-Bhakti but not to the extent as Śrī Nārada goes in his Bhakti Sūtra. But he deals with the philosophy to a great extent.

 He begins with Athāto — Bhakti Jijñāsā: that is after commenting upon other Treatises he now takes delight to illustrate the philosophy, science and ontology of Bhakti where in the very first instant he says:

“Bhakti is the unshakable attachment to the Supreme Godhead and that is the only way for one striving to become immortal, beatific and eternally blissful.”

He says Jñāna is not indispensable for culturing Bhakti. At the dawn of Bhakti Jñāna itself is totally lost of its charm and significance.

Śrī Nārada considered even hatred or malice secondary (gauna) Bhakti when- they help the remembrance of God; but Śrī Śāṇḍilya says, even in such case hatred cannot be taken by any means as Bhakti because where there is no anurāga there is no rasa, whereas Bhakti is Rasa.

Jñāna is not at all related to Bhakti because, Jñāna is acquired by one's own endeavour, but Bhakti is causeless and gets manifested on its own accord. Jñāna is the Inductive Process and Bhakti is the Deductive Process.

It is only Bhakti that makes one to realise God in His totality and absolutely it does not require any help from earlier Knowledge of God, When Bhakti is referred to other than the Supreme Godhead, it is perverse.

Without becoming subjugated to Bhakti, Jñāna or yoga or karma cannot produce any real spiritual result.

Śāṇḍilya further says: 'Even attainment of Samādhi or contemplation upon God is the secondary aspect of Bhakti. Attachment to a-Sat is the gateway of life of transmigration whereas attachment to Sat (saints-devotees) merits the highest spiritual reward and Anuraga to Supreme Puruṣa leads to Prema. If Bhakti is not the essential part of Vedanta Philosophy then Vedanta itself cannot have its core.

The second Chapter begins with: “the path of Jñāna and Karma are to be followed till one's heart becomes untainted at the dawn of Śraddhā. Jñāna and Karma may be followed when they are subservient to Bhakti.

Bhakti is the eternal unbreakable relationship of Jīva-soul with Godhead that is established undisputedly by the Vedas as well as by the exalted Parama Bhagavata devotees.

Explaining the philosophy of religion he illustrates that Jīva-souls are although qualitatively same with God but quantitatively different from Him; thereby he establishes the Doctrine of Achintya-bheda-abheda Theory.

Jīva is liable to be enthralled by Māyā-but having taken recourse to Bhakti he becomes free from the life of transmigra­tion.

Jīvas are infinitesimal parts of God, originating from the Taṭastha Shakti of God and subject to be enveloped by Māyā; but God's position is eternal, unchangeable and undiminished and not subject to any modification.

Although all Jīva souls essentially are Cit, eternal and constitutionally separated parts  of God and also characteristically possessing right of getting emancipation through Devotion to God, yet why do they all not thrive for emancipation?

- Because at the state of bondage Jīvas have variegated, perverse knowledge being propelled by the guṇas of māyā.

God creates the universe through His Own external Potency Māyā, yet he ever remains immutable because He is Sat-Cit-Ānanda Svarūpa.

Neither Jīva nor Prakriti nor they both mutually create or procreate nor can they have their existence without the superintending of the God.

Prakriti or Māyā is not unreal or false because it is a potency of God. The Descents of Supreme Godhead i.e. His Births and Actions are Transcendental as they are out of His Svarūpa Shakti.

The highest type of Bhakti is Bhajan and other phases are component parts of it. In the Philosophy of Vedanta as well as in the Upaniṣadic Doctrine Bhakti to Bhagavan is the essential foundation. He speaks about the worship of Śrī-murti and the importance of the Mahā Prasādam as well as of Tirtha.

He also warns against the spiritual offences but for expiation even of the gravest offences a devotee need not observe any severe penance like Chāndrāyaṇa Vrata, but the constant chanting of the Divine Name not only saves a devotee from the offences but it does not allow offences befall upon him.

Because steadfast devotion makes the Lord stationed at heart therefore for the expiation of offences or sins it does not require any other assistance.

Every man down to the lowest born has equal right to follow the path of devotion. Even worst sinners when feel destitute and fervently craving the Mercy from God they too are bestowed with devotion and gradually attain the Abode of Peace. Without the vision of Truth life is undone or one is doomed to destruction.

Bhagavān is One without a second although He appears many as Paramātmā, Indwelling Monitor of all Jīva-souls like the sun reflected upon many transparent objects— because God is devoid of any modification by the adjuncts of Māyā.

It is not due to lack of knowledge but devoid of unalloyed devotion to God that cause the cycling of life of transmigration.

Here too as in the Nārada Bhakti Sūtra, Śrī Śāṇḍilya emphatically proclaims that Bhakti is unparalleled and unprecedented. Karma and Jñāna have got their relative values when they are in conformity with Bhakti. It is through Bhakti alone, that one can attain summum-bonum of life.

॥ शाण्डिल्य भक्ति सूत्रम् ॥
॥ śāṇḍilya bhakti sūtram

प्रथमोऽध्यायः
prathamo'dhyāyaḥ

First Chapter

प्रथममाह्निकम्
prathamamāhnikam

Lesson I

athāto bhaktijijñāsā ॥ 1॥

Thereafter henceforth to make inquiry into Devotion.

sā parā'nuraktirīśvare ॥ 2॥

Bhakti is the unshakeable attachment to the Supreme God.

tatsaṁsthasyāmṛtatvopadeśāt ॥ 3॥

Unalloyed devotion to Godhead makes oneself immortal, beatific and eternally blissful.

jñānamiti cenna dviṣato'pi jñānasya tadasaṁsthiteḥ ॥ 4॥

Some may opine that for culturing devotion to God philosophical knowledge: Jñāna is indispensable or there is necessary pre-conditional subsequence of philosophical knowledge of God. (Śāṇḍilya says) We say absolutely not, because we know an antagonist may also have knowledge of God but there rests not an iota of devotion in his mind towards God. And he never gets the state of highest blessedness.

tayopakṣayācca ॥ 5॥

Because at the very dawn of Bhakti, Jñāna or abstruse knowledge of Brahman, nay, the Jñāna-yoga itself (path of induction) has totally lost its charm and significance.

dveṣapratipakṣabhāvādrasaśabdācca rāgaḥ ॥ 6॥

Hatredness is antagonistic to Bhakti because Bhakti is Raga Nectarine Blissful with succulent taste in relation to eternal unalloyed Loving Raga service to the Supreme Godhead Who is Sat-Cit-Ānanda:

na kriyā kṛtyanapekṣaṇājjñānavat ॥ 7॥

Jñāna is to be acquired by one's own endeavour whereas Bhakti is causeless and gets manifested on its own accord ahaitukī (causeless).

ata eva phalānantyam ॥ 8॥

Therefore the reward of Devotion is Trans­cendental and infinite.

tadvataḥ prapattiśabdācca na jñānamitaraprapattivat ॥ 9॥

A Jñānī, when becomes fortunate indeed takes recourse to Bhakti. Even Jñāna cannot be acquired independently without self-surrender to God.

dvitīyamāhnikam

LESSON — II

sā sukhyetarāpekṣitatvāt ॥ 10॥

Bhakti is the fundamental and principal means and others (karma-Jñāna etc.) are subor­dinate and depending upon her.

prakaraṇācca ॥ 11॥

Bhakti is the substratum.

darśanaphalamiti cenna tena vyavadhānāt ॥ 12॥

Some opine to see God is the supreme attainment or highest pursuit. No, because there is intervention.

dṛṣṭatvācca ॥ 13॥

Yes, it is also by the very sight of god one comes svatat (i.e. attains highest pursuit of life).

ata eva tadabhāvādvallavīnām ॥ 14॥

Whereas even before having seen Śrī Krishna the Vraja Gopis were pregnant with poignant infatuation of unsurmounting Love for the sole gratification of His Amour.

bhaktyā jānātīti cennābhijñaptyā sāhāyyāt ॥ 15॥

It is only Bhakti that alone makes to realise God in His totality and absolutely it does not require any help from earlier knowledge of God. (Some wrongly translate that first knowledge which leads to devotion. But it contradicts the previous statements (vide No 4 and 5).

prāguktaṁ ca ॥ 16॥

It was already illustrated beforehand.

etena vikalpo'pi pratyuktaḥ ॥ 17॥

Now with these expositions the contradiction regarding Jñāna and Bhakti is solved.

devabhaktiritarasmin sāhacaryāt ॥ 18॥

When Bhakti is referred to other than the Supreme Godhead, it is of course, a degraded form or perversely coined.

yogastūbhayārthamapekṣaṇāt prayājavat ॥ 19॥

As for the Jñāna so also for Yoga Bhakti is the substratum to bring the final success. Just as Prayāga ceremony is subsidiary to Vājapeya-yajña etc. as well as of Dikshaniya etc. so too Yoga and Jñāna are subservient to Bhakti.

gauṇyā tu samādhisiddhiḥ ॥ 20॥

Even attainment of Samadhi or meditation or contemplation upon God is the secondary aspect of Bhakti.

heyā rāgatvāditi cennottamāspadatvāt saṅgavat ॥ 21॥

As is the general testament that one must give up the attachment but attachments with the Sat (exalted devotee of Supreme Godhead) merits the highest spiritual reward; so also Anuraga to Uttama-Puruṣa must not be given up.

tadeva karmijñāniyogibhya ādhikyaśabdāt ॥ 22॥

Therefore without any contradiction Bhakti indeed is the highest of all and a Bhakta is superior to Karmī, Jñānī or a Yogi.

praśnanirūpaṇābhyāmādhikyasiddheḥ ॥ 23॥

The Supremacy of Devotion without any contradiction is established in reply to the question.

naiva śraddhā tu sādhāraṇyāt ॥ 24॥

The idiomatical use of Śraddhā or Faith in the Philosophy of Bhakti is not to be taken in an ordinary sense.

tasyāṁ tattve cānavasthānāt ॥ 25॥

If Śraddhā, Faith, is not taken as funda­mental, then a regressus ad infinitum would result and it would be sacrilegious.

brahmakāṇḍaṁ tu bhaktau tasyānujñānāya sāmānyāt ॥ 26॥

For Brahma-Kaṇḍa what is known as Vedanta moreover Bhakti is the essential condition, otherwise it cannot have its fundament.

samāptaśca prathamo'dhyāyaḥ ॥ 1॥

Here Ends the First Chapter.

dvitīyo'dhyāyaḥ

Second Chapter

प्रथममाह्निकम्
prathamamāhnikam

Lesson I

buddhihetupravṛttirāviśuddheravaghātavat ॥ 27॥

The path of Jñāna or Knowledge and path of Karma i.e. Rituals are to be followed till one's heart becomes untinted at the dawn of Śraddhā as threshing the paddy is to be continued till grains are husked.

tadaṅgānāṁ ca ॥ 28॥

When they are subservient to Bhakti they should be followed.

tāmaiśvaryaparāṁ kāśyapaḥ paratvāt ॥ 29॥

Kāśyapa rishi opines that Jīva souls are infinitesimal beings entirely dependent upon Him and realising His Omnipotence should be sub­servient to Him.

ātmaikaparāṁ bādarāyaṇaḥ ॥ 30॥

The very essential function or characteristic of the soul is the definition of Bhakti. - says Śrī Veda-Vyāsa.

ubhayaparāṁ śāṇḍilyaḥ śabdopapattibhyām ॥ 31॥

Śāṇḍilya says that it is, as per the Vedas, as well as from the precepts of the exalted selves, established that Bhakti is the eternal unbreakable relationship of Jīva-soul with God­head as servitor and Served.

vaiṣamyādasiddhamiti cennābhijñānavadavaiśiṣṭayāt ॥ 32॥

Though Jīva is qualitatively same with the Brahman or God but quantitatively different from God; it is established by the philosophy of Truth that God is Advaya-Jñāna-Tattva. One without a second.

na ca kliṣṭaḥ paraḥ syādanantaraṁ viśeṣāt ॥ 33॥

Though Jīva-soul is subject to the affliction of maya but when he is dovetailed in loving service of Godhead he becomes totally free from any sorrow or suffering and becomes blissful.

aiśvaryaṁ tatheti cenna svābhāvyāt ॥ 34॥

Jīva-soul comes to the state of bondage due to his infinitesimal potentiality.

apratiṣiddhaṁ paraiśvaryaṁ tadbhāvācca naivamitareṣām ॥ 35॥

The Supra-logical transcendental Potencies of Supreme Divinity are ever unchangeable and undiminished and not subject to any modification because they are His Svarūpa-śaktis: Sat-Cit ever existent and unabated whereas Jīvas are subject to modification.

sarvānṛte kimiti cennaivambuddhyānantyāt ॥ 36॥

When all Jīva-souls essentially are Cit - eternal and constitutionally separated parts of God and also characteristically possessing rights of getting emancipation through Devotion to God then why do they all not try for emancipation?

Because at the state of bondage they have variegated perverse knowledge being propelled by the Guṇas of Māyā.

prakṛtyantarālādavaikāryaṁ citsattvenānuvartamānāt ॥ 37॥

Though God creates the universe through His Own external potency maya, He ever remains immutable because He is Sat-Cit-Ānanda Svarūpa.

tatpratiṣṭhā gṛhapīṭhavat ॥ 38॥

As it is said a man is seated in the room although actually he sits on a wooden chair.

mitho'pekṣaṇādubhayam ॥ 39॥

Neither Jīva nor Prakriti (Māyā); nor they both mutually can create or procreate nor can they have their existence without the superin­tending of the God.

cetyācitorna tṛtīyam ॥ 40॥

When Vibhu-Cit (Supreme God-head) is realised by Anu-Cit (Jīva-soul), there remains no third dimension.

yuktau ca samparāyāt ॥ 41॥

He thought and Prakriti and Puruṣa got united for procreation.

śaktitvānnānṛtaṁ vedyam ॥ 42॥

Prakriti or Māyā is not unreal or false be­cause it is an energy or potency of Brāhman (God).

tatpariśuddhiśca gamyā lokavalliṅgebhyaḥ ॥ 43॥

The unadulterated mood of devotion may be inferred from the natural outburst of a devotee.

sammānabahumānaprītivirahetaravicikitsāmahimakhyātitadartha-
prāṇasthānatadīyatāsarvatadbhā-
vāprātikūlyādīni ca smaraṇebhyo vāhulyāt ॥ 44॥

Characteristic of single minded devotee is:

Anything that is conducive to his devotional service, he duly receives with due honour. Even a little help that a devotee receives he values it with great esteem. Anything concerning the service of God, he receives with all love; he feels extreme pang in Love-in-Separation.

Aversion to everything else that is not in consonance with devotion to God, ecstatic rapture in singing the Glory of His Beloved God, to sustain his life only for His sake, feeling: I am of Thy Own, observing His presence everywhere and everything as belonging to Him.

He leads a life that never goes in vain for a moment and in no way contradicting the mood of devotion. And very many such other aspects can be noticed.

dveṣādayastu naivam ॥ 45॥

Whereas hatred, jealousy, malice etc. are not the signs of devotion.

tadvākyaśeṣāt prādurbhāveṣvapi sā ॥ 46॥

To the conclusion of the previous statement (Śloka 44) it is also to be understood that Bhakti to the other Incarnations of God (Vishnu) is also recognised or defined as genuine.

janmakarmavidaścājanmaśabdāt ॥ 47॥

Through the revealed Śruti Shastra it is known that one goes beyond the life of transmigration when he realises the mystery of the Birth and Actions or Pastimes of God.

tacca divyaṁ svaśaktimātrodbhavāt ॥ 48॥

His Descents i.e. Births and Actions are Transcendental, because They are operated by His Own Essential Potency i.e. Yogamāyā.

mukhyaṁ tasya hi kāruṇyam ॥ 49॥

The principle cause for His Advent on earth is indeed, His compassion.

prāṇitvānna vibhūtiṣu ॥ 50॥

Love and attachment or rendering service even to the Vibhūtis, persons possessing introspective grandeur, glory, might, sublimity, beauty or loveliness — all those are qualities of living beings; therefore they cannot be called Devotion in its true sense and absolutely cannot help for attaining final beatitude in one's own life.

dyūtarājasevayoḥ pratiṣedhācca ॥ 51॥

To wait upon the king's favour and gambl­ing must be prohibited.

vāsudeve'pīti cennākāramātratvāt ॥ 52॥

Is it to be the cause in relation to Vasudeva too? No, because Vāsudeva is the Self some Manifested Form of the Supreme God Himself.

pratyabhijñānācca ॥ 53॥

That is the established Truth instituted in the most authentic literatures.

vṛṣṇiṣu śraiṣṭhyena tat ॥ 54॥

Why Śrī Krishna has put Himself as Vāsudeva in the line of Vibhūtis for glorifying the Vṛishṇi-race.

evaṁ prasiddheṣu ca ॥ 55॥

In the same way Bhakti is to be recognised when applied to the other Incarnations of God Vishnu.

dvitīyamāhnikam

Lesson II

bhaktyā bhajanopasaṁhārādgauṇyā parāyai taddhetutvāt ॥ 56॥

Final or paramount attainment of Bhakti is Bhajan (ecstatic rapture in singing the Glories of Godhead) and all other phases of Bhakti are component parts of it.

rāgārthaprakīrtisāhacaryāccetareṣām ॥ 57॥

For arousing Raga or Anuraga infatuation or poignancy of Love in singing Divine Krishna Nāma other phases of Bhakti are to be followed.

antarāle tu śeṣāḥ syurupāsyādau ca kāṇḍatvāt ॥ 58॥

In the Uttara-Kāṇḍa (Vedānta) including the Upanishads (Upanishads are the sources of Vedānta philosophy) the main purpose is to establish the Object (Brahman) Who is to be worshipped and that is spoken either in incognito or most esoterically everywhere in the beginning as well as at the end.

tābhyaḥ pāvitryamupakramāt ॥ 59॥

Why Karma-yoga and Jñāna-yoga are pres­cribed? Because at the initial stage before the dawn of Bhakti they may result in purifying the mind but they are not absolutely necessary to evoke Bhakti.

tāsu pradhānayogāt phalādhikyameke ॥ 60॥

Some opine that when Karma yoga and Jñāna yoga are superintended by Bhakti-yoga they indeed produce better results.

nāmneti jaiminiḥ sambhavāt ॥ 61॥

Śrī Jaimini rishi opines that listening to or chanting the Divine Name is the best method for culturing unalloyed devotion.

atrāṅgaprayogānāṁ yathākālasambhavo gṛhādivat ॥ 62॥

Here other phases of Bhakti are to be followed in accordance with proper time and appropriateness likewise as for example building a house with all completeness.

īśvaratuṣṭereko'pi balī ॥ 63॥

Even anyone of the nine phases of Bhakti when performed it pleases the God.

abandho'rpaṇasya mukham ॥ 64॥

The gate-way for entering into the world of emancipation is the full dedication or self-surrender.

dhyānaniyamastu dṛṣṭasaukaryāt ॥ 65॥

However, it is seen that some (glorious rishis) opine meditation or contemplation (Dhyāna) and austerities are more suitable for enhancing fervent devotion.

tadyajiḥ pūjāyāmitareṣāṁ naivam ॥ 66॥

Indeed, Yajña denotes worship of the Supreme Godhead and not for any other sake.

pādodakaṁ tu pādyamavyāpteḥ ॥ 67॥

Pādodaka means the holy water with which a Deity of God Vishnu is given a bath and it is not meant for any other water whatsoever may be its purity.

svayamarpitaṁ grāhyamaviśeṣāt ॥ 68॥

The offerings that are made to the Deities must be honoured without any sacrilegious superstition.

nimittaguṇāvyapekṣaṇādaparādheṣu vyavasthā ॥ 69॥

The gravity of offences are considered as it is done intentionally of involuntarily of accidentally.

patrāderdānamanyathā hi vaiśiṣṭayam ॥ 70॥

Anything, even if it is mere leaf, when with steadfast devotion offered to God, it has got its significance.

sukṛtajatvāt parahetubhāvācca kriyāsu śreyasyaḥ ॥ 71॥

From the fact that due to the accumulated spiritual merit when one with single minded devotion offers all the best materials that he possesses, nay, even simple offerings of leaves, or flowers, arise the para-bhakti the supreme loving devotion to God which is far far superior over all other virtuous deeds including Vedic rituals.

gauṇaṁ traividhyamitareṇa stutyarthatvāt sāhacaryam ॥ 72॥

The earlier three classes of Bhakti i.e. Artha-jijñāsā and arthārthi although are of lower grade of Bhakti yet they are spoken along with jñāni, to establish their superiority from all other rituals.

bahirantastham – ubhayam - aveṣṭi – sava vat ॥ 73॥

Artha, arthārthi and jijñāsā—they at time are led to the attainment of external or ephemeral gains or (rarely) internal or transcendental pursuit in life like aveṣṭi and sava.

smṛtikīrtyoḥ kathādeścārtau prāyaścittabhāvāt ॥ 74॥

For the expiation of the offences one must earnestly and arduously take recourse to listening, remembering and chanting the Divine Names, Glories and Pastimes of Śrī Hari.

bhūyasāmananuṣṭhitiriti cedāprayāṇamupasaṁhārānmahatsvapi ॥ 75॥

Even for the expiation of the gravest offences, there is absolutely no need for a devotee to observe severe penance like Chāndrāyaṇa Vrata etc. because when he has taken recourse to constant chanting of Divine Name till the death does not befall upon him.

laghvapi bhaktādhikāre mahatkṣepakamaparasarvahānāt ॥ 76॥

For a devotee even a little act of devotion destroys gravest sin, because Bhakti has got such an extra-ordinary power.

tatsthānatvādananyadharmaḥ khalevālīvat ॥ 77॥

Because steadfast devotion makes the Lord stationed at heart therefore for the expiation of sins it does not require any other assistance as Bhakti serves the self-some purpose, like the post of the threshing floor.

ānindyayonyadhikriyate pāramparyāt sāmānyavat ॥ 78॥

Every man, even down to the lowest born, has equal right to follow the path of devotion as it is taught by successive authorities, like other objects which are common to all.

ato hyavipakvabhāvānāmapi talloke ॥ 79॥

Therefore, even though one who has not reached the highest state of his devotional perfection he will go to the Abode of God, the Home of eternal Bliss.

kramaikagatyupapattestu ॥ 80॥

There is a gradual process and also immediate process of attaining perfection in Bhakti yoga.

atkrāntismṛtivākyaśeṣācca ॥ 81॥

The concluding statement of the Smriti (Gītā) is that they too gradually attain Me, the highest Goal.

mahāpātakināṁ tvārtau ॥ 82॥

Even worst sinners when stand destitute fervently craving the Mercy from God they too are bestowed with devotion and gradually attain the abode of Peace.

saikāntabhāvo gītārthapratyabhijñānāt ॥ 83॥

One who has understood the essence knows that the true purport of the Gītā is exclusive or unalloyed devotion to Godhead.

parāṁ kṛtvaiva sarveṣāṁ tathā hyāha ॥ 84॥

Exclusive unalloyed devotion to Godhead is the core of all the lessons: thus spoke Śrīmad Bhāgavat Gītā.

samāptaśca dvitīyo'dhyāyaḥ ॥ 2॥

Here Ends the Second Chapter

tṛtīyo'dhyāyaḥ

Third Chapter

prathamamāhnikam

Lesson I

bhajanīyenādvitīyamidaṁ kṛtsnasya tatsvarūpatvāt ॥ 85॥

Bhajan or Para-Bhakti is of transcendental Nature identical with God being of His essential Potency i.e. Means is the End in Itself.

tacchaktirmāyā jaḍasāmānyāt ॥ 86॥

God's external Potency is Māyā but she is insentient or inert.

vyāpakatvādvayāpyānām ॥ 87॥

Due to the immanence God in the universe or His All pervasiveness all principles are sub­servient to or superintended by God therefore nothing can exist beyond His jurisdiction.

na prāṇibuddhibhyo'sambhavāt ॥ 88॥

This philosophy of Śakti-pariṇāma-vāda: the theory of modification of Śakti (Potency) of God cannot be intellectually comprehended.

nirmāyoccāvacaṁ śrutīśca nirmimīte pitṛvat ॥ 89॥

Having created the Jīvas from His Taṭastha-śakti (which is superior to His māyā of external potency) and the universe through His māyā or external Potency (which is inferior to Jīva Potency) God created the Vedas.

miśropadeśānneti cenna svalpatvāt ॥ 90॥

When the Vedas delineate most ambiguous statements of exoteric and esoteric knowledge, then how do we consider it an act of supreme kindness of God?

We should not have such doubt in respect to the most merciful Acts of God because indeed such ambiguous statements are very very few.

phalamasmādbādarāyaṇo dṛṣṭatvāt ॥ 91॥

The vision of Truth is the Prospect of humanity: thus spoke Śrī Bādarāyaṇa Śrī Vyāsadeva.

vyutkramādapyayastathā dṛṣṭam ॥ 92॥

Without the Vision of Truth life is undone or one is doomed to destruction.

द्वितीयमाह्निकम्
dvitīyamāhnikam

Lesson II

tadaikyaṁ nānātvaikatvamupādhiyogahānādādityavat ॥ 93॥

Bhagavan is One without a second—although He appears many as Paramātma, Indwelling Monitor of all Jīva-souls like the Sun reflected upon many transparent objects - because God is devoid of any modification by the adjuncts of māyā.

pṛthagiti cenna pareṇāsambandhāt prakāśānām ॥ 94॥

Some (the Pantheists, Māyāvādi) say Brahman in Its Variegated Manifestation may appear as such but essentially variegatedness cannot be maintained. Saguṇa Brahman when devoid of adjuncts becomes Nirguṇa Brahman therefore no variegatedness can be maintained.

na vikāriṇastu karaṇavikārāt ॥ 95॥

Doctrine of Brahma-pariṇāma-vāda i.e. Karaṇa (Efficient-cause) Brahma becoming modified by māyā (illusion) or with the adjunct of māyā appears as Jīvas — this pantheistic theory cannot be maintained.

ananya bhaktyā tadūbuddhi buddhilayāt tyantam ॥ 96॥

In unalloyed devotion where ontology of the Supreme Divinity is not lacking but at the very dawn of Rāgānugā Bhakti philosophy of supremacy is subdued by the over-flow or poignancy of Love. Secondly an Ātmārāma Brahma-jñāni at the very dawn of unalloyed devotion at his heart his avidyā is destroyed.

āyuściramitareṣāṁ tu hāniranāspadatvāt ॥ 97॥

Life is ever lost for those who are steeped in nescience as they run after the mirages, but the devotees eternally live with Bliss.

saṁsṛtireṣāmabhaktiḥ syānnājñānāt kāraṇāsiddheḥ ॥ 98॥

It is not due to lack of Philosophical know­ledge but devoid of unalloyed devotion to God that causes the cycling of life of transmigration.

trīṇyeṣāṁ netrāṇi śabdaliṅgākṣabhedādrudravat ॥ 99॥

As Shiva has got three eyes so also three Principles Pramāṇaṁ: Testament, valid means of philosophy of Supreme Reality.

āvistirobhāvā vikārāḥ syuḥ kriyāphalasaṁyogāt ॥ 100॥

The birth and death of a Jīva-soul is due to the adjunct of māyā and cycling of life of transmigration as per the results of one's own Karma, actions in life.

samāptaśca tṛtīyo'dhyāyaḥ ॥ 3॥

iti śrīśāṇḍilyamaharṣipraṇītabhaktisūtram

Here Ends the Third Chapter.