Philosophy Category

Advaita Vedanta of Śankara

Śankara belongs to the 8th century A.D. He describes himself as a student of Govinda, who was himself a student of Gauḍapāda. He lived for thirty-two years and wrote many works of which the chief are his commentaries on the triple basis of the Vedānta system - classical Upaniṣads, the Bhagavad-Gītā and the Brahma- sūtra.

Early Nyāya - Vaiśeṣika | Epystemology

The Nyāya and the Vaiśeṣika are realistic systems based on independent reasoning. They are a valuable set-off against the phenomenalism and idealism of the Buddhist thinkers. While the Nyāya is mainly logic and epistemology, the Vaiśesika is primarily physics and metaphysics. The two, however, agree on essential principles and have the same end, namely, the liberation of the individual self.

Early Nyāya - Vaiśeṣika | Metaphysics

The Nyāya-Vaiśesika theory of the world is guided by the general spiritual view of Indian philosophy. In its attempt to explain the origin and destruction of the world it reduces all composite objects to the four kinds of atoms of earth, water, fire and air. It is called the atomic theory of the world. But it does not ignore the moral and spiritual principles.

The Age of Buddha | Early Buddhism 1

The Buddha was born in the sixth century B.C. It was an age of spiritual restlessness and society was moving away fast from its old religious moorings.Criticism of Vedic practices had started earlier, in fact, for even the Upaniṣads belittled the efficacy of sacrificial rites and laid emphasis on knowledge of Reality as the best path of attaining a blessed hereafter.

Law of Dependent Origination | Early Buddhism 2

The flourish with which the discovery of dependent origination or causal concatenation is announced in the Pali canon,shows the importance the Buddhist monks and schoolmen attached to the formula. The real point is whether the rule of law governing the destinies of sentient existence was couched in the language of the dependent origination formula by the Buddha himself or some of his followers.

Doctrine of Non-Soul | Early Buddhism 3

Between two opposite viewpoints of eternalism (whether absolutistic or dualistic) and annihilation-ism lies the creed of the Buddha that though there is no unchanging self (ātman), still it is not a function of matter and is not completely denuded of all causal efficacy when particular bodily embodiment ceases to exist. Negation of the soul (anātma-vāda) amounts only to this, that its entitative persistence is denied.

Nirvana and Religion | Early Buddhism 4

What then is nirvana—the final goal of all spiritual endeavour? A Buddha or an Arhat attains nirvana with residue (upādhi-śeṣa) here below—becomes a Jīvan-mukta,his body continues to function till death, but his soul ceases to acquire new karma.When the body drops off, he attains nirvana without residue (anupādhi-śeṣa) as no fresh embodiment takes place.

Jain Philosophy

The Jaina-Darśana, like other Indian systems, has a religious as well as a philosophical aspect.Ahimsā is the chief religious idea and anekānta- vāda—looking at reality from many points of view—constitutes the philosophical ideal.According to the Jaina tradition of the twenty-four tīrthamkaras, the first was Ṛṣabha who revealed the Ahimsā-dharma. The last of these was Mahāvīra.

Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas

Viṣṇu Purāṇa and the Bhāgavata are the two important poetical works, representing a particular type of Sanskrit religious-philosophical literature, Purāṇas. Purāṇas do not identify themselves with any particular scholastic system of philosophy or any particular sectarian religion. A leaning towards bhakti (devotion) is, however, predominant in all the Purāṇas, and this is very appealing to popular minds and hearts.

Manu Smriti and Kautilya

The Manu-Smṛti is the leading work on the sacred law (dharma-śāstra) of ancient India and the Artha-śāstra of Kauṭilya takes the same rank among the manuals of polity. While there is much agreement between Manu and Kauṭilya in the fundamentals of sociology, their differences indicate that views of the Smṛti belong to a slightly later age than the Artha-Śāstra.