Philosophy Category

Dvaitādvaita philosophy of Nimbārka

Śrī Nimbārkācārya, the founder of Nimbārka tradition, is generally supposed to have flourished in the eleventh century A.D. after Rāmānuja. The Vedānta doctrine of Nimbārka is a valuable contribution to the history of thought from the philosophical, religious and ethical standpoints. The most noteworthy feature of Nimbārka’s system is its spirit of compromise and adjustment.

Madhva Acharya and Dvaita Vedanta

Madhva and his Works, —The philosophy of Brahman (Brahma-Mimāṅsā) expounded by Madhva is popularly called Dvaita. Madhva (1199–1278) was born near Udipi. His social environment was moulded by the general tenets of this philosophy. Scholars studied this philosophy with great interest. Some were dissatisfied with the prevalent ideas about its meaning.His works exhibit a unity of purpose.

Rāmānuja Philosophy of Viśiṣṭādvaita

It is the merit of the Viśiṣṭādvaita of Rāmānuja as a synthetic philosophy of love that it seeks to reconcile the extremes of monism and theism and, like all mediating systems, it is often misunderstood by its followers as well as by its critics.Viśiṣṭādvaita states that God is immanent in all beings as their inner self and at the same time transcendent.

Advaita Vedanta of Śankara

Śankara belongs to the 8th century A.D. He describes himself as a student of Govinda, who was himself a student of Gauḍapāda. He lived for thirty-two years and wrote many works of which the chief are his commentaries on the triple basis of the Vedānta system - classical Upaniṣads, the Bhagavad-Gītā and the Brahma- sūtra.

Early Nyāya - Vaiśeṣika | Metaphysics

The Nyāya-Vaiśesika theory of the world is guided by the general spiritual view of Indian philosophy. In its attempt to explain the origin and destruction of the world it reduces all composite objects to the four kinds of atoms of earth, water, fire and air. It is called the atomic theory of the world. But it does not ignore the moral and spiritual principles.

Early Nyāya - Vaiśeṣika | Epystemology

The Nyāya and the Vaiśeṣika are realistic systems based on independent reasoning. They are a valuable set-off against the phenomenalism and idealism of the Buddhist thinkers. While the Nyāya is mainly logic and epistemology, the Vaiśesika is primarily physics and metaphysics. The two, however, agree on essential principles and have the same end, namely, the liberation of the individual self.

Nirvana and Religion | Early Buddhism 4

What then is nirvana—the final goal of all spiritual endeavour? A Buddha or an Arhat attains nirvana with residue (upādhi-śeṣa) here below—becomes a Jīvan-mukta,his body continues to function till death, but his soul ceases to acquire new karma.When the body drops off, he attains nirvana without residue (anupādhi-śeṣa) as no fresh embodiment takes place.

Doctrine of Non-Soul | Early Buddhism 3

Between two opposite viewpoints of eternalism (whether absolutistic or dualistic) and annihilation-ism lies the creed of the Buddha that though there is no unchanging self (ātman), still it is not a function of matter and is not completely denuded of all causal efficacy when particular bodily embodiment ceases to exist. Negation of the soul (anātma-vāda) amounts only to this, that its entitative persistence is denied.

Law of Dependent Origination | Early Buddhism 2

The flourish with which the discovery of dependent origination or causal concatenation is announced in the Pali canon,shows the importance the Buddhist monks and schoolmen attached to the formula. The real point is whether the rule of law governing the destinies of sentient existence was couched in the language of the dependent origination formula by the Buddha himself or some of his followers.

The Age of Buddha | Early Buddhism 1

The Buddha was born in the sixth century B.C. It was an age of spiritual restlessness and society was moving away fast from its old religious moorings.Criticism of Vedic practices had started earlier, in fact, for even the Upaniṣads belittled the efficacy of sacrificial rites and laid emphasis on knowledge of Reality as the best path of attaining a blessed hereafter.