Philosophy Category

Jain Philosophy

The Jaina-Darśana, like other Indian systems, has a religious as well as a philosophical aspect.Ahimsā is the chief religious idea and anekānta- vāda—looking at reality from many points of view—constitutes the philosophical ideal.According to the Jaina tradition of the twenty-four tīrthamkaras, the first was Ṛṣabha who revealed the Ahimsā-dharma. The last of these was Mahāvīra.

Vishnu and Bhagavata Puranas

Viṣṇu Purāṇa and the Bhāgavata are the two important poetical works, representing a particular type of Sanskrit religious-philosophical literature, Purāṇas. Purāṇas do not identify themselves with any particular scholastic system of philosophy or any particular sectarian religion. A leaning towards bhakti (devotion) is, however, predominant in all the Purāṇas, and this is very appealing to popular minds and hearts.

Manu Smriti and Kautilya

The Manu-Smṛti is the leading work on the sacred law (dharma-śāstra) of ancient India and the Artha-śāstra of Kauṭilya takes the same rank among the manuals of polity. While there is much agreement between Manu and Kauṭilya in the fundamentals of sociology, their differences indicate that views of the Smṛti belong to a slightly later age than the Artha-Śāstra.

Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad-Gītā (or the Gītā, as it is generally called) forms a part of the Mahābhārata. It ranks as one of the greatest religious documents of ancient India and holds a unique place in its religious life.A greater attempt is nowhere made to turn philosophy into practical religion and bring the individual and the universe into personal relation with a living god.

The Mahabharata

The philosophy of the Epics is to be chiefly found in the Mahābhārata which, with its large mass of legendary, mythological and didactic material, gives greater scope to it, and even directly inculcates certain philosophical and religious doctrines. Some of the myths and legends go back to Vedic times, but some of the parables and moral narratives are of later growth.

Introduction in Ramayana Philosophy

The Rāmāyaṇa, a national epic, like the Mahābhārata,has exerted profound influence on the thoughts and feelings and conduct of the Indian people ever since it saw the daylight. It has set up ideals of manhood and womanhood which have been cherished and imitated by people of all classes and denominations and have helped to ennoble them and succour them in their tribulations.

Basic Concepts in Upanishads

It is no exaggeration to say that the Upaniṣads have inspired not only the orthodox systems of Indian philosophy but also some heterodox Schools like those of Buddhism. The Upaniṣads are not syste­matic treatises on philosophy; they are not the works of a single author. The teachers whose intuitions are recorded in the Upaniṣads are more mystic seers than metaphysical investigators.

Vedic and Dravidian roots of Hinduism

Nothing definite can be said as to whether Hindu thought is the result of the addition of the Āryan or the Vedic elements to an earlier Dravidian civilization or the addition of Dravidian elements to an already existing Āryan or Vedic civilization.This much is certain, that what is called Hindu thought is not a simple growth from Āryan or Vedic civilization.

Sānkhya Philosophy

Sāṁkhya Darśana is a traditional philosophical school of India that assume the existence of two eternal principles – the Nature or Material principle (Prakṛti) and the Spiritual or Soul (Puruṣa).Buddha Shakyamuni himself was practicing under the guidance of Sānkhya teachers, before he reached enlightenment.