Sāṁkhya Karika with Gauḍapāda Commentaries | Part 3

Śabdādishu pañcānām, ālocanamātram ishyate vṛttiḥ |
vacanādānaviharaṇotsargānandāsh ca pañcānām  |28|

28. The function of five [organs] in the matter of colour and the rest, is only observation; that of [the other] five is speech, handling, walking, excretion and generation [respectively].

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

Next are specified the several functions of the [different] organs:

The word only signifies specialty, and excludes the not-particularised; as, ‘only alms are received,' that is, nothing else. So the eye [observes] only colour and not flavour, etc.; similarly of the rest, that is, colour is the object of the eye, taste of the tongue, smell of the nose, sound of the ear, and touch of the skin. Thus the functions of the intellectual organs have been specified.

The [respective] functions of the organs of action are next detailed: Speech, etc. of the five, that is, of the organs of action. The construction is, the function of the voice is articulation, of the hands manipulation, of the feet locomotion, of the rectum excretion of faeces- converted food, and of the sexual organs delight from generation of offspring.

Svālakṣaṇyā vṛttis, trayasya saishā bhavaty asāmānyā |
sāmānyakariaṇavṛttiḥ, prāṇādyā vāyavaḥ pañca  |29|

29. The function of the three [internal faculties] is characteristic of each and not common to all. The common function of the organs is breath and the rest of the five vital airs.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

The functions of intellect, apperception and mind are now defined:

That is characteristic which partakes of its peculiar nature. Ascertainment has been spoken of as the characteristic of intellect; that is its function also. So egoism is self-apperception, [here] egoism is both the characteristic and the function. Mind is determinative, this is the definition; hence reflection is the function of mind. Of the three, intellect, egoism and mind, the functions are the characteristics, and are peculiar. The functions of the organs of intellection, as before described, are also specific.

The common function is next described. The common function of the organs are the five vital airs, |viz.] prāṇa, apāna, samāna, udāna, vyāna. These are common to all the organs. Prāṇa, for instance, is the air perceptible within the mouth and nostrils; and the circulation of this is the common function of the thirteen organs; because it is owing to the existence of this breath that the organs become connected with Soul; it is prāṇa too which like a bird in a cage moves everything. It is called breath (prāṇa) from breathing. So apāna is named after removing, and its circulation is also the common function of the organs. Similarly, samāna is so called because it is central and distributes food evenly [to all parts of the body], and the circulation of this is also a function common to all the organs. The name udāna is from either ascending or lifting or guiding up; [this air] is perceptible in the space between the head and the navel, and the circulation it has is a common function of all the organs. What else? The air which contributes to internal diffusion and division, and pervades the frame like the ethereal element, is vyāna end the circulation thereof is a common function of the organic assemblage. Thus the five vital airs, as the common function of the organs, has been explained, the common function, that is, even of the thirteen kinds.

Yugapac catuṣṭaya sya tu, vṛttiḥ kramashash ca tasya nirdishṭā |
dṛṣṭe tathāpy adṛṣṭe, trayasya tatpūrvikā vṛttiḥ  |30|

30. The functions of the four with regard to sensible objects are described to be simultaneous as well as consecutive ; with regard to the insensible, the functions of the three [internal faculties] are preceded by the action of the fourth [sense-organ].

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 [The functions] of the four are; simultaneous; the four are formed by intellect, egoism, and mind in connection with a sense-organ. The functions of the four in the matter of sensible objects, that is, in the ascertainment thereof, are simultaneous ; intellect, self-apperception, mind and the eye apprehend form simultaneously and in one instant, [recognising, for instance, that] 'that is a post.’ The three internal organs with the tongue perceive flavour instantly. The same three with the nose at once appreciate odour. Similarly in connection with the skin and the ear.

What else? They have been also defined to be consecutive; they, that is, the functions of the four. As a way-farer seeing an object from distance doubts [at first] whether it is a post or a man. He then perceives some mark upon it or a bird. Thereupon intellect, which dissipates the doubt suggested by the mind, dis-criminates ‘that is a post,’ and self-apperception assures, ‘Verily [I am certain] it is a post.’ This illustrates the consecutive action of intellect, self-apperception, mind and the eye. As in the case of form, so it is as to sound and other perceptible objects.

What else? In the case of the imperceptible, the function of the three is subsequent to that of the fourth. In the imperceptible, that is, in time past and future, in the case of form the action of the three internal faculties is preceded by that of the eye, in the case of touch by that of the skin, in the case of smell by that of the nose, in the case of flavour by that of the tongue, and in the case of sound by that of the ear. The functions of Intellect, Egoism and Mind in respect of time past and future are preceded in order by those of the senses; in respect of the present [they may be] instantaneous or gradual.

Svāṃ svām pratipadyante, parasparākūtahetukīṃ vṛttim |
puruṣārtha eva hetur, na kena cit kāryate karaṇam  |31|

31. The organs perform their respective functions, being incited thereto by a mutual impulse. The cause is the benefit of Soul. No organ is moved to action by anyone.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

Svāṁ (proper, respective) is repeated. Intellect, self-apperception and mind perform their respective functions, the incitement whereto is a mutual impulse. Ākūta implies respectful eagerness. Intellect and the others [do this] for the advantage of Soul. Consciousness being influenced by the activity of self-apperception, sets about its peculiar work. If [it be asked], ‘with what object?’ [the answer is,] the purpose of the Soul is the motive. The purpose of Soul is to be effected; the constitutive powers operate for this end, and hence do these organs make manifest the object of Self.

If [it be asked], ‘how they, being unconscious, [effect this]?' [the reply is,] they act of their own accord. No one does move an organ. The benefit of Soul alone moves them to action. This is the meaning of the sentence. An organ is not caused or incited to act by anybody, divine or human.

Karaṇaṃ trayodaśavidhaṁ, tad āharaṇadhāraṇaprakāśakaram |
kāryaṃ ca tasya daśadhā, āhāryaṁ, dhāryam prakāshyaṁ ca  |32|

32. Organ is thirteen-fold, seizing, retaining and manifesting; the effect thereof is ten-fold, that which is to be seized, to be retained, and to be manifested.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 It is next specified how many Intellect and the other [instruments] are.

Instrument. Mahat and the rest are thirteen. Intellect and the rest [make] three, the organs of perception, eye etc., five, the organs of action, voice etc., five; [thus], instrument is of thirteen kinds. What does this perform? In answer it is said, seizing, holding and manifesting. The organs of action seize and retain, those of perception manifest.

How many are its operations? In reply it is said, the effect is ten-fold. The work of the instrument, what it has to do, is of ten kinds: sound, touch, form, flavour and smell, also voice, handling, motion, excretion and generation, these are the ten effects manifested by means of the organs of perception. Grasp and retention are effected by the organs of action.

Antaḥkaraṇaṃ trividhaṃ, dashadhā bāhyaṃ trayasya viṣayākhyam |
sāmpratakālam bāhyaṃ, trikālam ābhyantaraṃ karaṇaṃ  |33|

33. Internal organs are three, external ten, making known objects to the three. The external are confined to time present, the internal embrace past and future as well.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

What else? Internal, [viz.] Intellect, Self-apperception, and Mind are three-fold, through difference between the Great One and the others. External [organs] are ten, five being organs of perception and five of action: they make known things to the three internal [organs], [thus] causing fruition unto them.

In time present. The ear hears a present sound, not a past or a future, the eye sees a present form, not one that is gone by or not yet come, the skin touches a present object, the tongue a present flavour, the nose a present odour, not what is past or what is future. Similarly [with regard to] the organs of action: [for instance], the voice articulates a present sound, not past or future; the hand takes hold of a present jar, not one that was or is to be; the feet move upon a present, and not a past or future, walk; and the organs of excretion and of generation perform present, and not past or future, offices. Thus the external organs are said to be active in time present.

The internal organs serve at all times: Intellect, Self-apperception, and Mind have to do with objects in all the three times. [For instance], Intellect apprehends a present water-jar as well as one that has been or is yet to be; Self-apperception identifies [an object], whether present, past or future; Mind defines in the present as well as in the past and the future. Thus the internal organs relate to all the three times.

Buddhīndriyāṇi teshām, pañca visheshiviśeṣaviṣayīṇi |
vāg bhavati śabdaviṣayā, sheshāṇy tu pañcaviṣayāni  |34|

34. Among these, the five organs of perception concern objects, both specific and non-specific.  The voice has for its object sound. The rest concern all the five objects [of sense].

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

Next is explained which of the organs apprehends specific objects and which non-specific.

Among these the intellectual organs apprehend Specific objects. The said organs in the case of men make known sound, touch, form, flavour and smell, as well as objects connected with pleasure, pain or indifference. The organs of the divinities perceive things which have no specific characteristics.

Next, among the organs of action, the voice is concerned with sound; in gods as well as men the voice speaks, recites verses, etc. Therefore the organ of speech is alike in beings divine and human.

The rest, [that is], all except speech, [viz.,] the hand, the foot, the organs of excretion and of generation, concern all the five objects, [m.,] sound and the rest. [For example], sound, feel, form, flavour and odour are [all] to be found in the hand; the foot walks over the earth characterised by the same five marks; the excretory organ evacuates matter containing all of them; and the generative organ secretes a liquid which is marked by the five objects of sense as well.

Sāntaḥkaraṇā buddhiḥ, sarvaṃ viṣayaṁ avagāhate yasmāt |
tasmāt tividhaṃ kāraṇam, dvāri dvārāṇi śeṣāṇi.  |35|

35. Since Intellect with the [other] internal organs dives into all objects, therefore those three organs are the gate-keepers, and the rest are gates.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 Because Intellect with the other internal organs, that is, with Self-apperception and Mind, dives into, apprehends, all objects, sound and the rest, at all times, therefore the [said] three fold instrument is the warder, and the rest of the organs are [only] doors.

Ete pradīpakapāḥ, parasparavilakṣaṇā guṇaviśeṣāḥ |
kṛtsnam puruṣasyārtham, prakāśya buddhau prayacchati  |36|

36. These [organs], different from one another in characteristics, and variously modified by the constituent powers, present to- Intellect the whole object of Soul, making it manifest, like a lamp.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

What else? These, the aforesaid organs, variously affected by the constituents; how particularised? Like a lamp, illuminating objects like a lamp; characteristically differing from each other, dissimilar, that is, having different objects; diversely modified by the constitutives, [that is], produced from them.

The whole object of Soul. The organs of perception and of action, self-apperception and mind, after representing [the object] of self-according to the capability of each, present it to Intellect, that is, place it therein; whereupon soul attains to pleasure and the other objects to be found in consciousness.

Sarvam pratyupabhogaṃ, yasmāt puruṣasya sādhayati buddhiḥ |
saiva ca vishinashṭi punaḥ, pradhānapuruṣāntaraṃ sūkṣmam  |37|

37. As it is Intellect which accomplishes for Self fruition of all that is to be experienced, so it is that, again, which discriminates the subtle difference between Nature and Soul.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya


All, what may be apprehended by any of the senses in all the three times.

Fruition: respective enjoyment by means of the organs of perception and of action, in gods, men, or animals; Intellect with the [other] internal organs accomplishes, effects. Therefore it is that again which distinguishes, demarcates the objects of Nature and Soul, [establishes], that is, their diversity. Subtle, unattainable without practice of religious austerities. This is Nature, the equipoised condition of goodness, passion and darkness, this is intellect, that is egoism, these are the five rudiments, these the eleven organs, these the five gross elements, and that is different, [it is] soul and dissimilar to all. He whose intellect discriminates all this obtains liberation.

Tanmātrāṇy avisheshās, tebhyo bhūtāni pañca pañcabhyaḥ |
ete smritā visheshāḥ, shāntā ghorāsh ca mūdhāsh ca  |38|

38. The rudimentary principles are nonspecific; from these five proceed the five gross elements, which are known as specific, [since they are] soothing, terrific and dulling.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

It was said before, “objects specific and non-specific” [verse 34]. What they are is now explained.

The five subtle principles which spring from self- consciousness, [viz.,] the rudiments of sound, touch, form, flavour and smell are spoken of as non-specific. They are objects of perception for the divine beings, characterised by pleasure and devoid of pain or dullness. The five gross elements, earth, water, fire, air and ether by name, which spring from these five subtle rudiments, are said to be specific. From the rudiment of smell proceeds earth, from that of flavour water, from that of form fire, from that of touch air, and from that of sound ether. The gross elements have thus sprung, and they are “specific,” objects of perception for human beings. They are soothing, marked by pleasure; terrific, marked by pain; and dulling, marked by stupefaction. As, for instance, the same Sky which may be pleasing and soothing to a person coming forth from inside a narrow house, may be a cause of pain and terror to one affected by cold, heat, wind or rain, and may be a source of bewilderment to a way-farer in a forest who has gone astray from his path and lost himself in the perplexity of space ; even so the wind is agreeable to a person perspiring with heat, dreadful to one affected by cold, and stupefying when stormy and surcharged with dust and sand. Similarly of fire and the rest.

Sūkṣmā mātāpitrijāḥ, saha prabhūtais tridhā visheshāḥ syuḥ |
sūkṣmās teshāṃ niyatā, mātāpitrijā nivartante  |39|

39. Subtle [bodies] and such as spring from father and mother, together with the great [existences] form the three varieties of specific objects. Of these, the subtle are everlasting, [while] those born of parents

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

There are other specific varieties:

Subtle, the rudimentary principles, from an aggregation of which [springs] the rudimental subtle body, characterised by intellect and the rest, which subsists for ever and undergoes transmigration: these are the “subtle” (bodies). 

'Next, generated by father and mother, the nourishers of gross bodies. At the season of the menses, by means of the mixture of blood and semen through sexual union, they form an envelopment for the subtle body within the womb ; this subtle body again is nourished through the umbilical cord by the black, yellow and various other fluids [into which food and drink have been converted] within the mother and the [complete] body thus begun with the triple specific ingredients of the subtle rudiments, the parent-begotten envelopment, and the gross elements,  is then furnished with back, belly, thighs, neck, head, etc., with the six-fold membranes, with blood, flesh, nerve, semen, bone and marrow, and with the five gross elements, ether being supplied for extension, air for growth, fire for digestion, water for aggregation, and earth for stability; thus provided with all parts, it emerges from the mother’s womb. In this way there are three kinds of specific objects.

It is next indicated which is eternal and which is non-eternal. Of these, the subtle are ever-lasting, the rudimental principles are eternal; by them is body commenced and it migrates,—passing through the forms of beasts, deer, birds, reptiles, stocks and stones, if associated with impiety, or passing through the heaven of Indra and other divinities, if controlled by virtue,—thus the subtle body migrates till it attains to knowledge; when knowledge has been acquired the knowing [Self] leaves the body and obtains salvation. Therefore the subtle specific [bodies] are permanent.

The parent-begotten body perishes: having left the subtle body, the said frame even here perishes at the time this life departs ; the frame born of parents at the time of death perishes, and [the several constituents] are resolved into earth and the other [elements] respectively.

Pūrvotpannam asaktaṃ, niyatam mahadādi sūkṣmaparyantam |
saṃsarati nirūpabhogaṃ, bhāvair adhivisitaṃ liṅgam  |40|

40. The subtle body, [which is] primeval, unconfined, permanent [and composed of] intellect and the rest down to the elemental rudiments, migrates, enjoys not, and is invested with affections.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 What the subtle body is and how it migrates are next described.

When the universe was not, in the first creation of Nature, was the subtle body produced.

What else? Unconfined, not tied down to the condition of an animal, man, or god; being subtle it is nowise restrained, and passes unobstructed through rocks, etc.; it migrates or goes.

Permanent, it undergoes transmigration until it acquires knowledge.

Next, [composed of] Intellect and the rest down to the subtle rudiments, that is, consciousness in the first place, with self-apperception and mind, down to the- five subtle principles.

[It] migrates, [traverses] the three worlds, as an ant on a trident [continually goes up and down].

Unenjoying, not experiencing; the sense is that the subtle body becomes capable of experience when it acquires the property of action through conjunction with- the external generated body.

Invested with dispositions: affected by dispositions, which will be enumerated hereafter.

Mergent. At the time of universal dissolution, the subtle body, furnished with intellect and the rest down to* the rudiments, resolves into Nature, and exempted from further migration, remains there till the period of a new creation, bound in her (Nature’s) bonds of insensibility, and incapable of revolution and the like action. When creation is renewed, it again migrates; whence [it is] called liṅga or subtle.

Citraṃ yathāśrayam rite, sthāṇvādibhyo vinā yathā chāyā |
tadvad vināviśeṣair, na tishṭhati nirāśrayaṃ liṅgam  |41|

41. As a painting rests not without a frame, nor a shadow without a stake, et cetera, so the rudimental substance subsists not unsupported, without specific [forms].

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

Being pressed [to explain] why the thirteen instruments revolve, [the author] replies:

As a picture does not stand without the support of a wall or the like, a shadow does not stand, does not exist, without a stake or peg, etc. The word et cetera includes [other illustrations], for instance, water does not exist without coldness, nor vice versa; fire cannot be without heat, air without touch, ether without extension, [or] earth without smell. On the analogy of these illustrations, [the rudimental substance] does not exist without [the support of] non-specific elements, the subtle principles.  The specific elements are also implied, a body composed of the five elements; [for] without a frame with specific particles where can the place of the ‘rudiment’ be, which, when it leaves one body, takes refuge in another?

Unsupported, devoid of support. The ‘rudiment’ is an instrument composed of thirteen principles; that is the sense.

Puruṣārthahetukam idaṃ, nimittanaimittikaprasangena |
prakṛter vibhutvayogān, naṭavad vyavatishṭhate liṅgam  |42|

42. The ‘rudiment,’ formed for the sake of Soul, through relation of means and consequence, [and] by conjunction with the presiding influence of Nature, plays its part like a dramatic actor.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 It is next explained what for [the subtle principles are invested with a frame].

The purpose of Self is to be fulfilled, hence Nature proceeds to action. This (purpose) is two-fold, apprehension of sound and other [objects of sense], and appreciation of the difference between Soul and the constitutive powers. The former brings about enjoyment of fragrance and other sense-objects in the spheres of Brahmā etc., the latter liberation. Therefore it is said that the subtle body acts for the benefit of Soul.

Through relation of means and consequence. Means are virtue and the like. Consequences are ascending to heaven and so forth, as will be afterwards explained. By their relation, [that is], connection.

By union with the predominant power of the Prime Agent or Nature; as a king in his dominions does what he likes of his own authority, so through the authority of Nature and by the connection of means and their results, the ‘rudiment’ plays its part; at Nature's command it assumes ever diverse forms. The subtle body is formed by aggregation of subtle atomic rudiments and is furnished with thirteen organs; and it assumes different forms by birth among animals, men or gods. How? Like an actor. As a player, entering upon the scene as a god, goes out and [appears] again as a man, and again as a clown, so the subtle body, through relation of cause and consequence, may by entering [diverse] wombs become ati elephant, a woman or a man.

Sāṃsiddhikāsh ca bhāvāḥ, prakṛtikā vaikṛtāsh ca dharmādyāḥ |
dṛṣṭāḥ karaṇāśrayiṇaḥ, kāryāśrayiṇash ca kalalādyāḥ  |43|

43. Conditions are either transcendental or natural or modified.  [They are] virtue and the like. [These are] considered to be appurtenant to the cause, while the uterine germ and the rest are appurtenant to the effect.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

The subtle body was spoken of as migrating u invested with affections” [verse 40]. The affections (or conditions) are next specified.

Affections are considered to be of three kinds, transcendental, natural and modified. Of these transcendental are the four dispositions which in the first creation came into existence simultaneously with the divine sage Kapila, viz., virtue, wisdom, dispassion and power. The natural are [thus] described: Brahma had four sons, Sanaka, Sananda, Sanātana, and Sanatkumāra; with them, in consequence of [meritorious] work [done in a former existence], were these four dispositions produced, invested with youthful forms, therefore are they [called] natural. Next modified, as, from the form of the teacher as a cause arises knowledge within us, from knowledge dispassion, from dispassion virtue, from virtue power; [now] this form of the teacher is itself a product [of Nature,] whence these dispositions are termed modified, “invested with which the rudiment migrates” [verse 40]. These four dispositions partake of the quality of goodness; those partaking of darkness are the contraries. This explains “when affected by goodness the modes are these; when affected by darkness they are the reverse” [verse 23 ante]. Thus there are eight dispositions, [viz.,] virtue, knowledge, dispassion, power, vice, ignorance, passion and weakness.

Where do they abide? They are considered appurtenant to the cause. Intellect is a cause, they attach themselves to it. It has been [already] said, Intellect is determination; virtue, knowledge” etc. [are its modes].

Effect, body; supported by that are the uterine germ etc., [that is,] those which are said to be born of the mother. The uterine germ etc. are the bubble, the flesh, the muscle, and the rest, which through union of blood and semen [are generated] for the development [of the foetus]. Thus the states of boyhood, youth and old age are brought about by the instrumentality of food and drink. [They are] therefore termed attributive of the effect, having for their instrumental cause repletion and the like sensual gratification.

Dharmeṇa gamanam ūrdhvaṃ, gamanam adhastād bhavaty adharmeṇa |
jñānena cāpavargo, viparyayād ishyate bandhaḥ  |44|

44. By virtue is ascent upwards, by vice descent below; by knowledge is liberation, and by the reverse bondage.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 It was said, “through the relation of means and consequence” [verse 42], this is [now] explained.

By virtue ascent: having virtue for the efficient cause it ascends upwards. Upwards refers to the eight regions, viz., those of Brahmā, Prajāpati, Soma, Indra, Gaṅdharva, Yakṣa, Rākṣasa, and Piśācha. The subtle body goes thither. If vice be the efficient cause, it enters into an animal, wild or domestic, a reptile, stock or stone.

What else? By knowledge liberation: knowledge of the twenty-five principles, this being the efficient cause, salvation [is attained], the subtle body ceases [to migrate], and [soul] is termed ‘the supreme spirit’.

By the reverse comes bondage: ignorance being the efficient cause; and this effect, bondage, is natural, modified or personal, as will be explained hereafter.  For it is said, “He who is bound by natural, modified or personal bondage cannot be released by any other [means save knowledge]”.

Vairāgyāt prakṛtilayaḥ, saṃsāro bhavati rājasād rāgāt |
aishvaryād avighāto, viparyayāt tadviparyāsaḥ  |45|

45. From dispassion [follows] absorption into Nature; from foul passion birth into the world; from power removal of obstruction; from the contrary, the reverse.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 Further there are other efficient causes: 

If one has dispassion but no knowledge of principles then from such dispassion (having for its antecedent ignorance) [follows] absorption into Nature; on death it  merges into the eight forms of Nature, [viz.] the Prime Cause, intellect, self-apperception, and the five rudiments ; [but there is] no liberation.

Similarly again from foul passion: [for instance], ‘I sacrifice, I give alms, so that I may obtain divine or human bliss in this world;’ from such passion worldly re-birth proceeds.

Next, from power non-obstruction: from eightfold power (consisting of minuteness, etc.) as efficient cause follows the result absence of hindrance; such power is not impeded [even] in the spheres of Brahmā and the rest.

What else? From the contrary, the reverse: the reverse of non-obstruction, [that is], hindrance ensues; weakness is impeded everywhere.

Eṣa pratyayasargo, viparyayāshaktitushṭisiddhyākhyaḥ |
guṇavaiṣamyavimardāt, tasya ca bhedās tu pañcāśat  |46|

46. This forms an intellectual creation, described as obstruction, disability, contentment and perfection; by the hostile influence of inequalities among constituents, the varieties thereof are fifty.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

The sixteen-fold causes and effects have been explained; what they comprehend is next described.

The sixteen-fold set of causes and effects [just] described is called an intellectual creation. Pratyaya (trust) is intellect; as has been said, “Intellect is determination” etc. [verse 23].

This intellectual creation is divided into four kinds, viz., obstruction, disability, contentment and perception. Of these, doubt or ignorance is obstruction, as, one on beholding a post is in doubt whether it is a post or a man. Disability, for instance, when though the post is plainly seen, yet there is an incapability of resolving the doubt. The third is termed contentment, as, when one does not care to doubt or determine whether it is a post [saying], ‘how does it concern us? This is contentment (or acquiescence). The fourth is called perfection (or certainty), as, when the delighted observer perceives a creeper round or a bird upon the stake and knows for certain that it is a post.

Of this four-fold intellectual creation, the varieties on account of the influence of constitutive differences are fifty: there are fifty modifications of it due to the hostile influence of inequalities in the constituent powers of goodness, passion and darkness. In some goodness prevails, passion, and darkness are subordinate, in others passion, in others again darkness; hence the varieties.

Pañca viparyayabhedā, bhavanty aśaktish ca karaṇavaikalyāt |
ashṭāviṃshatibhedā, tushṭir navadhāshṭadhā siddhiḥ  |47|

47. Five are the varieties of obstruction; twenty-eight of disability, through organic imperfection; nine varieties there are of contentment, and eight of perfection.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

 [The modifications] are now detailed.

There are five varieties of obstruction: these are as follows, obscurity, illusion, extreme illusion, gloom and utter darkness; the distinctions between these will be explained presently. There are twenty-eight varieties of disability, owing to defects in organs, which also we shall explain. Next, contentment is nine-fold, [being] the [several] kinds of passion-befouled knowledge possessed by an ascetic. Lastly, perfection is eight-fold, [comprising] the [several] kinds of goodness-purified knowledge which a holy man possesses.

Bhedas tamaso ashṭavidho, mohasya ca dashavidho mahāmohaḥ |
tāmishro ashṭāḥdashadhā, tathā bhavaty andhatāmishro  |48|

48. The sub-divisions of obscurity are eight, so also of illusion; extreme illusion is of ten kinds, gloom of eighteen, as also utter darkness.

Gauḍapāda Bhāṣya

The sub-divisions are to be particularised in order; first of those of obstruction.

There are eight distinctions of obscurity, final dissolution being so divided by ignorance ; as when a person thinks the soul merges into the eight modes of Nature known as Prime Stuff, consciousness, self-apperception, and the five rudiments, and thence concludes, T am liberated ’; this is eight-fold obscurity.

The distinctions of illusion are also of eight kinds, whence Indra and the other gods, through association with the eight-fold powers, minuteness etc., do not attain salvation, but on the destruction thereof have to migrate again ; this is eight-fold illusion.

Extreme illusion is of ten kinds: the five sense- objects of sound, touch, colour, flavour and smell, are sources of happiness both to gods and men; extreme illusion consists in these ten.

Gloom; the eight kinds of power and the ten objects of sense, perceived and heard (that is, human and divine), make up eighteen; the feeling that rejoices in the season of fruition and the feeling that grieves in that of want, constitute the eighteen-fold gloom.

Like gloom, utter darkness has eighteen varieties, [owing to] the eight superhuman powers and the ten objects of sense; but it refers to that profound grief which results when a man dies in the midst of rich sensual enjoyments, or falls from the command of the eightfold powers.

Thus the five varieties of obstruction,  obscurity and the rest, being each divided, make up sixty-two sub-divisions.