Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 5 Chapter 16

A Description of Jambūdvīpa

VERSE 5.16.1

rājovāca

uktas tvayā bhū-maṇḍalāyāma-viśeṣo yāvad ādityas tapati yatra cāsau jyotiṣāṁ gaṇaiś candramā vā saha dṛśyate.

SYNONYMS

rājā uvāca — Mahārāja Parīkṣit said; uktaḥ — already been said; tvayā — by you; bhū-maṇḍala — of the planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍala; āyāma-viśeṣaḥ — the specific length of the radius; yāvat — as far as; ādityaḥ — the sun; tapati — heats; yatra — wherever; ca — also; asau — that; jyotiṣām — of the luminaries; gaṇaiḥ — with hordes; candramā — the moon; — either; saha — with; dṛśyate — is seen.

TRANSLATION

King Parīkṣit said to Śukadeva Gosvāmī: O brāhmaṇa, you have already informed me that the radius of Bhū-maṇḍala extends as far as the sun spreads its light and heat and as far as the moon and all the stars can be seen.

VERSE 5.16.2

tatrāpi priyavrata-ratha-caraṇa-parikhātaiḥ saptabhiḥ sapta sindhava upakḷptā yata etasyāḥ sapta-dvīpa-viśeṣa-vikalpas tvayā bhagavan khalu sūcita etad evākhilam ahaṁ mānato lakṣaṇataś ca sarvaṁ vi-jijñāsāmi.

SYNONYMS

tatra api — in that Bhū-maṇḍala; priyavrata-ratha-caraṇa-parikhātaiḥ — by the ditches made by the wheels of the chariot used by Priyavrata Mahārāja while circumambulating Sumeru behind the sun; saptabhiḥ — by the seven; sapta — seven; sindhavaḥ — oceans; upakḷptāḥ — created; yataḥ — because of which; etasyāḥ — of this Bhū-maṇḍala; sapta-dvīpa — of the seven islands; viśeṣa-vikalpaḥ — the mode of the construction; tvayā — by you; bhagavan — O great saint; khalu — indeed; sūcitaḥ — described; etat — this; eva — certainly; akhilam — whole subject; aham — I; mānataḥ — from the point of view of measurement; lakṣaṇataḥ — and from symptoms; ca — also; sarvam — everything; vijijñāsāmi — wish to know.

TRANSLATION

My dear Lord, the rolling wheels of Mahārāja Priyavrata’s chariot created seven ditches, in which the seven oceans came into existence. Because of these seven oceans, Bhū-maṇḍala is divided into seven islands. You have given a very general description of their measurement, names and characteristics. Now I wish to know of them in detail. Kindly fulfill my desire.

VERSE 5.16.3

bhagavato guṇamaye sthūla-rūpa āveśitaṁ mano hy aguṇe ’pi sūkṣmatama ātma-jyotiṣi pare brahmaṇi bhagavati vāsudevākhye kṣamam āveśituṁ tad u haitad guro ’rhasy anuvarṇayitum iti.

SYNONYMS

bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; guṇa-maye — into the external features, consisting of the three modes of material nature; sthūla-rūpe — the gross form; āveśitam — entered; manaḥ — the mind; hi — indeed; aguṇe — transcendental; api — although; sūkṣmatame — in His smaller form as Paramātmā within the heart; ātma-jyotiṣi — who is full of Brahman effulgence; pare — the supreme; brahmaṇi — spiritual entity; bhagavati — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudeva-ākhye — known as Bhagavān Vāsudeva; kṣamam — suitable; āveśitum — to absorb; tat — that; u ha — indeed; etat — this; guro — O my dear spiritual master; arhasi anuvarṇayitum — please describe factually; iti — thus.

TRANSLATION

When the mind is fixed upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His external feature made of the material modes of nature — the gross universal form — it is brought to the platform of pure goodness. In that transcendental position, one can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vāsudeva, who in His subtler form is self-effulgent and beyond the modes of nature. O my lord, please describe vividly how that form, which covers the entire universe, is perceived.

VERSE 5.16.4

ṛṣir uvāca

na vai mahārāja bhagavato māyā-guṇa-vibhūteḥ kāṣṭhāṁ manasā vacasā vādhigantum alaṁ vibudhāyuṣāpi puruṣas tasmāt prādhān-yenaiva bhū-golaka-viśeṣaṁ nāma-rūpa-māna-lakṣaṇato vyākhyāsyāmaḥ.

SYNONYMS

ṛṣiḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued to speak; na — not; vai — indeed; mahā-rāja — O great King; bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; māyā-guṇa-vibhūteḥ — of the transformation of the qualities of the material energy; kāṣṭhām — the end; manasā — by the mind; vacasā — by words; — either; adhigantum — to understand fully; alam — capable; vibudha-āyuṣā — with a duration of life like that of Brahmā; api — even; puruṣaḥ — a person; tasmāt — therefore; prādhānyena — by a general description of the chief places; eva — certainly; bhū-golaka-viśeṣam — the particular description of Bhūloka; nāma-rūpa — names and forms; māna — measurements; lakṣaṇataḥ — according to symptoms; vyākhyāsyāmaḥ — I shall try to explain.

TRANSLATION

The great ṛṣi Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: My dear King, there is no limit to the expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead’s material energy. This material world is a transformation of the material qualities [sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa], yet no one could possibly explain it perfectly, even in a lifetime as long as that of Brahmā. No one in the material world is perfect, and an imperfect person could not describe this material universe accurately, even after continued speculation. O King, I shall nevertheless try to explain to you the principal regions, such as Bhūloka, with their names, forms, measurements and various symptoms.

VERSE 5.16.5

yo vāyaṁ dvīpaḥ kuvalaya-kamala-kośābhyantara-kośo niyuta-yojana-viśālaḥ samavartulo yathā puṣkara-patram.

SYNONYMS

yaḥ — which; — either; ayam — this; dvīpaḥ — island; kuvalaya — the Bhūloka; kamala-kośa — of the whorl of a lotus flower; abhyantara — inner; kośaḥ — whorl; niyuta-yojana-viśālaḥ — one million yojanas (eight million miles) wide; samavartulaḥ — equally round, or having a length and breadth of the same measurement; yathā — like; puṣkara-patram — a lotus leaf.

TRANSLATION

The planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍala resembles a lotus flower, and its seven islands resemble the whorl of that flower. The length and breadth of the island known as Jambūdvīpa, which is situated in the middle of the whorl, are one million yojanas [eight million miles]. Jambūdvīpa is round like the leaf of a lotus flower.

VERSE 5.16.6

yasmin nava varṣāṇi nava-yojana-sahasrāyāmāny aṣṭabhir maryādā-giribhiḥ suvibhaktāni bhavanti.

SYNONYMS

yasmin — in that Jambūdvīpa; nava — nine; varṣāṇi — divisions of land; nava-yojana-sahasra — 72,000 miles in length; āyāmāni — measuring; aṣṭabhiḥ — by eight; maryādā — indicating the boundaries; giribhiḥ — by mountains; suvibhaktāni — nicely divided from one another; bhavanti — are.

TRANSLATION

In Jambūdvīpa there are nine divisions of land, each with a length of 9,000 yojanas [72,000 miles]. There are eight mountains that mark the boundaries of these divisions and separate them nicely.

VERSE 5.16.7

eṣāṁ madhye ilāvṛtaṁ nāmābhyantara-varṣaṁ yasya nābhyām avasthitaḥ sarvataḥ sauvarṇaḥ kula-giri-rājo merur dvīpāyāma-samunnāhaḥ karṇikā-bhūtaḥ kuvalaya-kamalasya mūrdhani dvā-triṁśat sahasra-yojana-vitato mūle ṣoḍaśa-sahasraṁ tāvat āntar-bhūmyāṁ praviṣṭaḥ.

SYNONYMS

eṣām — all these divisions of Jambūdvīpa; madhye — among; ilāvṛtam nāma — named Ilāvṛta-varṣa; abhyantara-varṣam — the inner division; yasya — of which; nābhyām — in the navel; avasthitaḥ — situated; sarvataḥ — entirely; sauvarṇaḥ — made of gold; kula-giri-rājaḥ — the most famous among famous mountains; meruḥ — Mount Meru; dvīpa-āyāma-samunnāhaḥ — whose height is the same measurement as the width of Jambūdvīpa; karṇikā-bhūtaḥ — existing as the pericarp; kuvalaya — of this planetary system; kamalasya — like a lotus flower; mūrdhani — on the top; dvā-triṁśat — thirty-two; sahasra — thousand; yojana — yojanas (eight miles each); vitataḥ — expanded; mūle — at the base; ṣoḍaśa-sahasram — sixteen thousand yojanas; tāvat — so much; āntaḥ-bhūmyām — within the earth; praviṣṭaḥ — entered.

TRANSLATION

Amidst these divisions, or varṣas, is the varṣa named Ilāvṛta, which is situated in the middle of the whorl of the lotus. Within Ilāvṛta-varṣa is Sumeru Mountain, which is made of gold. Sumeru Mountain is like the pericarp of the lotuslike Bhū-maṇḍala planetary system. The mountain’s height is the same as the width of Jambūdvīpa — or, in other words, 100,000 yojanas [800,000 miles]. Of that, 16,000 yojanas [128,000 miles] are within the earth, and therefore the mountain’s height above the earth is 84,000 yojanas [672,000 miles]. The mountain’s width is 32,000 yojanas [256,000 miles] at its summit and 16,000 yojanas at its base.

VERSE 5.16.8

uttarottareṇelāvṛtaṁ nīlaḥ śvetaḥ śṛṅgavān iti trayo ramyaka-hiraṇmaya-kurūṇāṁ varṣāṇāṁ maryādā-girayaḥ prāg-āyatā ubhayataḥ kṣārodāvadhayo dvi-sahasra-pṛthava ekaikaśaḥ pūrvasmāt pūrvasmād uttara uttaro daśāṁśādhikāṁśena dairghya eva hrasanti.

SYNONYMS

uttara-uttareṇa ilāvṛtam — further and further north of Ilāvṛta-varṣa; nīlaḥ — Nīla; śvetaḥ — Śveta; śṛṅgavān — Śṛṅgavān; iti — thus; trayaḥ — three mountains; ramyaka — Ramyaka; hiraṇmaya — Hiraṇmaya; kurūṇām — of the Kuru division; varṣāṇām — of the varṣas; maryādā-girayaḥ — the mountains marking the borders; prāk-āyatāḥ — extended on the eastern side; ubhayataḥ — to the east and the west; kṣāroda — the ocean of salt water; avadhayaḥ — extending to; dvi-sahasra-pṛthavaḥ — which are two thousand yojanas wide; eka-ekaśaḥ — one after another; pūrvasmāt — than the former; pūrvasmāt — than the former; uttaraḥ — further north; uttaraḥ — further north; daśa-aṁśa-adhika-aṁśena — by one tenth of the former; dairghyaḥ — in length; eva — indeed; hrasanti — become shorter.

TRANSLATION

Just north of Ilāvṛta-varṣa — and going further northward, one after another — are three mountains named Nīla, Śveta and Śṛṅgavān. These mark the borders of the three varṣas named Ramyaka, Hiraṇmaya and Kuru and separate them from one another. The width of these mountains is 2,000 yojanas [16,000 miles]. Lengthwise, they extend east and west to the beaches of the ocean of salt water. Going from south to north, the length of each mountain is one tenth that of the previous mountain, but the height of them all is the same.

VERSE 5.16.9

evaṁ dakṣiṇenelāvṛtaṁ niṣadho hemakūṭo himālaya iti prāg-āyatā yathā nīlādayo ’yuta-yojanotsedhā hari-varṣa-kimpuruṣa-bhāratānāṁ yathā-saṅkhyam.

SYNONYMS

evam — thus; dakṣiṇena — by degrees to the southern side; ilāvṛtam — of Ilāvṛta-varṣa; niṣadhaḥ hema-kūṭaḥ himālayaḥ — three mountains named Niṣadha, Hemakūṭa and Himālaya; iti — thus; prāk-āyatāḥ — extended to the east; yathā — just as; nīla-ādayaḥ — the mountains headed by Nīla; ayuta-yojana-utsedhāḥ — ten thousand yojanas high; hari-varṣa — the division named Hari-varṣa; kimpuruṣa — the division named Kimpuruṣa; bhāratānām — the division named Bhārata-varṣa; yathā-saṅkhyam — according to number.

TRANSLATION

Similarly, south of Ilāvṛta-varṣa and extending from east to west are three great mountains named (from north to south) Niṣadha, Hemakūṭa and Himālaya. Each of them is 10,000 yojanas [80,000 miles] high. They mark the boundaries of the three varṣas named Hari-varṣa, Kimpuruṣa-varṣa and Bhārata-varṣa [India].

VERSE 5.16.10

tathaivelāvṛtam apareṇa pūrveṇa ca mālyavad-gandhamādanāv ānīla-niṣadhāyatau dvi-sahasraṁ paprathatuḥ ketumāla-bhadrāśvayoḥ sīmānaṁ vidadhāte.

SYNONYMS

tathā eva — exactly like that; ilāvṛtam apareṇa — on the western side of Ilāvṛta-varṣa; pūrveṇa ca — and on the eastern side; mālyavad-gandha-mādanau — the demarcation mountains of Mālyavān on the west and Gandhamādana on the east; ā-nīla-niṣadha-āyatau — on the northern side up to the mountain known as Nīla and on the southern side up to the mountain known as Niṣadha; dvi-sahasram — two thousand yojanas; paprathatuḥ — they extend; ketumāla-bhadrāśvayoḥ — of the two varṣas named Ketumāla and Bhadrāśva; sīmānam — the border; vidadhāte — establish.

TRANSLATION

In the same way, west and east of Ilāvṛta-varṣa are two great mountains named Mālyavān and Gandhamādana respectively. These two mountains, which are 2,000 yojanas [16,000 miles] high, extend as far as Nīla Mountain in the north and Niṣadha in the south. They indicate the borders of Ilāvṛta-varṣa and also the varṣas known as Ketumāla and Bhadrāśva.

VERSE 5.16.11

mandaro merumandaraḥ supārśvaḥ kumuda ity ayuta-yojana-vistāronnāhā meroś catur-diśam avaṣṭambha-giraya upakḷptāḥ.

SYNONYMS

mandaraḥ — the mountain named Mandara; meru-mandaraḥ — the mountain named Merumandara; supārśvaḥ — the mountain named Supārśva; kumudaḥ — the mountain named Kumuda; iti — thus; ayuta-yojana-vistāra-unnāhāḥ — which measure ten thousand yojanas high and wide; meroḥ — of Sumeru; catuḥ-diśam — the four sides; avaṣṭambha-girayaḥ — mountains that are like the belts of Sumeru; upakḷptāḥ — situated.

TRANSLATION

On the four sides of the great mountain known as Sumeru are four mountains — Mandara, Merumandara, Supārśva and Kumuda — which are like its belts. The length and height of these mountains are calculated to be 10,000 yojanas [80,000 miles].

VERSE 5.16.12

caturṣv eteṣu cūta-jambū-kadamba-nyagrodhāś catvāraḥ pādapa-pravarāḥ parvata-ketava ivādhi-sahasra-yojanonnāhās tāvad viṭapa-vitatayaḥ śata-yojana-pariṇāhāḥ.

SYNONYMS

caturṣu — on the four; eteṣu — on these mountains, beginning with Mandara; cūta-jambū-kadamba — of trees such as the mango, rose apple and kadamba; nyagrodhāḥ — and the banyan tree; catvāraḥ — four kinds; pādapa-pravarāḥ — the best of trees; parvata-ketavaḥ — the flagstaffs on the mountains; iva — like; adhi — over; sahasra-yojana-unnāhāḥ — one thousand yojanas high; tāvat — so much also; viṭapa-vitatayaḥ — the length of the branches; śata-yojana — one hundred yojanas; pariṇāhāḥ — wide.

TRANSLATION

Standing like flagstaffs on the summits of these four mountains are a mango tree, a rose apple tree, a kadamba tree and a banyan tree. Those trees are calculated to have a width of 100 yojanas [800 miles] and a height of 1,100 yojanas [8,800 miles]. Their branches also spread to a radius of 1,100 yojanas.

VERSE 5.16.13-14

hradāś catvāraḥ payo-madhv-ikṣurasa-mṛṣṭa-jalā yad-upasparśina upadeva-gaṇā yogaiśvaryāṇi svābhāvikāni bharatarṣabha dhārayanti; devodyānāni ca bhavanti catvāri nandanaṁ caitrarathaṁ vaibhrājakaṁ sarvatobhadram iti.

SYNONYMS

hradāḥ — lakes; catvāraḥ — four; payaḥ — milk; madhu — honey; ikṣu-rasa — sugarcane juice; mṛṣṭa-jalāḥ — filled with pure water; yat — of which; upasparśinaḥ — those who use the liquids; upadeva-gaṇāḥ — the demigods; yoga-aiśvaryāṇi — all the perfections of mystic yoga; svābhāvikāni — without being tried for; bharata-ṛṣabha — O best of the Bharata dynasty; dhārayanti — possess; deva-udyānāni — celestial gardens; ca — also; bhavanti — there are; catvāri — four; nandanam — of the Nandana garden; caitra-ratham — Caitraratha garden; vaibhrājakam — Vaibhrājaka garden; sarvataḥ-bhadram — Sarvatobhadra garden; iti — thus.

TRANSLATION

O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, best of the Bharata dynasty, between these four mountains are four huge lakes. The water of the first tastes just like milk; the water of the second, like honey; and that of the third, like sugarcane juice. The fourth lake is filled with pure water. The celestial beings such as the Siddhas, Cāraṇas and Gandharvas, who are also known as demigods, enjoy the facilities of those four lakes. Consequently they have the natural perfections of mystic yoga, such as the power to become smaller than the smallest or greater than the greatest. There are also four celestial gardens named Nandana, Caitraratha, Vaibhrājaka and Sarvatobhadra.

VERSE 5.16.15

yeṣv amara-parivṛḍhāḥ saha sura-lalanā-lalāma-yūtha-pataya upadeva-gaṇair upagīyamāna-mahimānaḥ kila viharanti.

SYNONYMS

yeṣu — in which; amara-parivṛḍhāḥ — the best of the demigods; saha — with; sura-lalanā — of the wives of all the demigods and semidemigods; lalāma — of those women who are like ornaments; yūtha-patayaḥ — the husbands; upadeva-gaṇaiḥ — by the semi-demigods (the Gandharvas); upagīyamāna — being chanted; mahimānaḥ — whose glories; kila — indeed; viharanti — they enjoy sports.

TRANSLATION

The best of the demigods, along with their wives, who are like ornaments of heavenly beauty, meet together and enjoy within those gardens, while their glories are sung by lesser demigods known as Gandharvas.

VERSE 5.16.16

mandarotsaṅga ekādaśa-śata-yojanottuṅga-devacūta-śiraso giri-śikhara-sthūlāni phalāny amṛta-kalpāni patanti.

SYNONYMS

mandara-utsaṅge — on the lower slopes of Mandara Mountain; ekādaśa-śata-yojana-uttuṅga — 1,100 yojanas high; devacūta-śirasaḥ — from the top of a mango tree named Devacūta; giri-śikhara-sthūlāni — which are as fat as mountain peaks; phalāni — fruit; amṛta-kalpāni — as sweet as nectar; patanti — fall down.

TRANSLATION

On the lower slopes of Mandara Mountain is a mango tree named Devacūta. It is 1,100 yojanas high. Mangoes as big as mountain peaks and as sweet as nectar fall from the top of this tree for the enjoyment of the denizens of heaven.

VERSE 5.16.17

teṣāṁ viśīryamāṇānām ati-madhura-surabhi-sugandhi-bahulāruṇa-rasodenāruṇodā nāma nadī mandara-giri-śikharān nipatantī pūrveṇelāvṛtam upaplāvayati.

SYNONYMS

teṣām — of all the mangoes; viśīryamāṇānām — being broken because of falling from the top; ati-madhura — very sweet; surabhi — fragrant; sugandhi — scented with other aromas; bahula — large quantities; aruṇa-rasa-udena — by reddish juice; aruṇodā — Aruṇodā; nāma — named; nadī — the river; mandara-giri-śikharāt — from the top of Mandara Mountain; nipatantī — falling down; pūrveṇa — on the eastern side; ilāvṛtam — through Ilāvṛta-varṣa; upaplāvayati — flows.

TRANSLATION

When all those solid fruits fall from such a height, they break, and the sweet, fragrant juice within them flows out and becomes increasingly more fragrant as it mixes with other scents. That juice cascades from the mountain in waterfalls and becomes a river called Aruṇodā, which flows pleasantly through the eastern side of Ilāvṛta.

VERSE 5.16.18

yad-upajoṣaṇād bhavānyā anucarīṇāṁ puṇya-jana-vadhūnām avayava-sparśa-sugandha-vāto daśa-yojanaṁ samantād anuvāsayati.

SYNONYMS

yat — of which; upajoṣaṇāt — because of using the fragrant water; bhavānyāḥ — of Bhavānī, the wife of Lord Śiva; anucarīṇām — of attendant maidservants; puṇya-jana-vadhūnām — who are wives of the most pious Yakṣas; avayava — of the bodily limbs; sparśa — from contact; sugandha-vātaḥ — the wind, which becomes fragrant; daśa-yojanam — up to ten yojanas (about eighty miles); samantāt — all around; anuvāsayati — makes fragrant.

TRANSLATION

The pious wives of the Yakṣas act as personal maidservants to assist Bhavānī, the wife of Lord Śiva. Because they drink the water of the river Aruṇodā, their bodies become fragrant, and as the air carries away that fragrance, it perfumes the entire atmosphere for eighty miles around.

VERSE 5.16.19

evaṁ jambū-phalānām atyucca-nipāta-viśīrṇānām anasthi-prāyāṇām ibha-kāya-nibhānāṁ rasena jambū nāma nadī meru-mandara-śikharād ayuta-yojanād avani-tale nipatantī dakṣiṇenātmānaṁ yāvad ilāvṛtam upasyandayati.

SYNONYMS

evam — similarly; jambū-phalānām — of the fruits called jambū (the rose apple); ati-ucca-nipāta — because of falling from a great height; viśīrṇānām — which are broken to pieces; anasthi-prāyāṇām — having very small seeds; ibha-kāya-nibhānām — and which are as large as the bodies of elephants; rasena — by the juice; jambū nāma nadī — a river named Jambū-nadī; meru-mandara-śikharāt — from the top of Merumandara Mountain; ayuta-yojanāt — ten thousand yojanas high; avani-tale — on the ground; nipatantī — falling; dakṣiṇena — on the southern side; ātmānam — itself; yāvat — the whole; ilāvṛtam — Ilāvṛta-varṣa; upasyandayati — flows through.

TRANSLATION

Similarly, the fruits of the jambū tree, which are full of pulp and have very small seeds, fall from a great height and break to pieces. Those fruits are the size of elephants, and the juice gliding from them becomes a river named Jambū-nadī. This river falls a distance of 10,000 yojanas, from the summit of Merumandara to the southern side of Ilāvṛta, and floods the entire land of Ilāvṛta with juice.

VERSE 5.16.20-21

tāvad ubhayor api rodhasor yā mṛttikā tad-rasenānuvidhyamānā vāyv-arka-saṁyoga-vipākena sadāmara-lokābharaṇaṁ jāmbū-nadaṁ nāma suvarṇaṁ bhavati; yad u ha vāva vibudhādayaḥ saha yuvatibhir mukuṭa-kaṭaka-kaṭi-sūtrādy-ābharaṇa-rūpeṇa khalu dhārayanti.

SYNONYMS

tāvat — entirely; ubhayoḥ api — of both; rodhasoḥ — of the banks; — which; mṛttikā — the mud; tat-rasena — with the juice of the jambū fruits that flows in the river; anuvidhyamānā — being saturated; vāyu-arka-saṁyoga-vipākena — because of a chemical reaction with the air and sunshine; sadā — always; amara-loka-ābharaṇam — which is used for the ornaments of the demigods, the denizens of the heavenly planets; jāmbū-nadam nāma — named Jāmbū-nada; suvarṇam — gold; bhavati — becomes; yat — which; u ha vāva — indeed; vibudha-ādayaḥ — the great demigods; saha — with; yuvatibhiḥ — their everlastingly youthful wives; mukuṭa — crowns; kaṭaka — bangles; kaṭi-sūtra — belts; ādi — and so on; ābharaṇa — of all kinds of ornaments; rūpeṇa — in the form; khalu — indeed; dhārayanti — they possess.

TRANSLATION

The mud on both banks of the river Jambū-nadī, being moistened by the flowing juice and then dried by the air and the sunshine, produces huge quantities of gold called Jāmbū-nada. The denizens of heaven use this gold for various kinds of ornaments. Therefore all the inhabitants of the heavenly planets and their youthful wives are fully decorated with golden helmets, bangles and belts, and thus they enjoy life.

VERSE 5.16.22

yas tu mahā-kadambaḥ supārśva-nirūḍho yās tasya koṭarebhyo viniḥsṛtāḥ pañcāyāma-pariṇāhāḥ pañca madhu-dhārāḥ supārśva-śikharāt patantyo ’pareṇātmānam ilāvṛtam anumodayanti.

SYNONYMS

yaḥ — which; tu — but; mahā-kadambaḥ — the tree named Mahākadamba; supārśva-nirūḍhaḥ — which stands on the side of the mountain known as Supārśva; yāḥ — which; tasya — of that; koṭarebhyaḥ — from the hollows; viniḥsṛtāḥ — flowing; pañca — five; āyāma — vyāma, a unit of measurement of about eight feet; pariṇāhāḥ — whose measurement; pañca — five; madhu-dhārāḥ — flows of honey; supārśva-śikharāt — from the top of Supārśva Mountain; patantyaḥ — flowing down; apareṇa — on the western side of Sumeru Mountain; ātmānam — the whole of; ilāvṛtam — Ilāvṛta-varṣa; anumodayanti — make fragrant.

TRANSLATION

On the side of Supārśva Mountain stands a big tree called Mahākadamba, which is very celebrated. From the hollows of this tree flow five rivers of honey, each about five vyāmas wide. This flowing honey falls incessantly from the top of Supārśva Mountain and flows all around Ilāvṛta-varṣa, beginning from the western side. Thus the whole land is saturated with the pleasing fragrance.

VERSE 5.16.23

yā hy upayuñjānānāṁ mukha-nirvāsito vāyuḥ samantāc chata-yojanam anuvāsayati.

SYNONYMS

yāḥ — which (those flows of honey); hi — indeed; upayuñjānānām — of those who drink; mukha-nirvāsitaḥ vāyuḥ — the air emanating from the mouths; samantāt — all around; śata-yojanam — up to one hundred yojanas (eight hundred miles); anuvāsayati — makes sweetly flavored.

TRANSLATION

The air carrying the scent from the mouths of those who drink that honey perfumes the land for a hundred yojanas around.

VERSE 5.16.24

evaṁ kumuda-nirūḍho yaḥ śatavalśo nāma vaṭas tasya skandhebhyo nīcīnāḥ payo-dadhi-madhu-ghṛta-guḍānnādy-ambara-śayyāsanābharaṇādayaḥ sarva eva kāma-dughā nadāḥ kumudāgrāt patantas tam uttareṇelāvṛtam upayojayanti.

SYNONYMS

evam — thus; kumuda-nirūḍhaḥ — having grown on Kumuda Mountain; yaḥ — that; śata-valśaḥ nāma — the tree named Śatavalśa (because of having hundreds of trunks); vaṭaḥ — a banyan tree; tasya — of it; skandhebhyaḥ — from the thick branches; nīcīnāḥ — flowing down; payaḥ — milk; dadhi — yogurt; madhu — honey; ghṛta — clarified butter; guḍa — molasses; anna — food grains; ādi — and so on; ambara — clothing; śayyā — bedding; āsana — sitting places; ābharaṇa-ādayaḥ — carrying ornaments and so on; sarve — everything; eva — certainly; kāma-dughāḥ — fulfilling all desires; nadāḥ — big rivers; kumuda-agrāt — from the top of Kumuda Mountain; patantaḥ — flowing; tam — to that; uttareṇa — on the northern side; ilāvṛtam — the land known as Ilāvṛta-varṣa; upayojayanti — give happiness.

TRANSLATION

Similarly, on Kumuda Mountain there is a great banyan tree, which is called Śatavalśa because it has a hundred main branches. From those branches come many roots, from which many rivers are flowing. These rivers flow down from the top of the mountain to the northern side of Ilāvṛta-varṣa for the benefit of those who live there. Because of these flowing rivers, all the people have ample supplies of milk, yogurt, honey, clarified butter [ghee], molasses, food grains, clothes, bedding, sitting places and ornaments. All the objects they desire are sufficiently supplied for their prosperity, and therefore they are very happy.

VERSE 5.16.25

yān upajuṣāṇānāṁ na kadācid api prajānāṁ valī-palita-klama-sveda-daurgandhya-jarāmaya-mṛtyu-śītoṣṇa-vaivarṇyopasargādayas tāpa-viśeṣā bhavanti yāvaj jīvaṁ sukhaṁ niratiśayam eva.

SYNONYMS

yān — which (all the products produced because of the flowing rivers mentioned above); upajuṣāṇānām — of persons who are fully utilizing; na — not; kadācit — at any time; api — certainly; prajānām — of the citizens; valī — wrinkles; palita — grey hair; klama — fatigue; sveda — perspiration; daurgandhya — bad odors because of unclean perspiration; jarā — old age; āmaya — disease; mṛtyu — untimely death; śīta — severe cold; uṣṇa — scorching heat; vaivarṇya — fading of the luster of the body; upasarga — troubles; ādayaḥ — and so on; tāpa — of sufferings; viśeṣāḥ — varieties; bhavanti — are; yāvat — as long as; jīvam — life; sukham — happiness; niratiśayam — unlimited; eva — only.

TRANSLATION

The residents of the material world who enjoy the products of these flowing rivers have no wrinkles on their bodies and no grey hair. They never feel fatigue, and perspiration does not give their bodies a bad odor. They are not afflicted by old age, disease or untimely death, they do not suffer from chilly cold or scorching heat, nor do their bodies lose their luster. They all live very happily, without anxieties, until death.

VERSE 5.16.26

kuraṅga-kurara-kusumbha-vaikaṅka-trikūṭa-śiśira-pataṅga-rucaka-niṣadha-śinīvāsa-kapila-śaṅkha-vaidūrya-jārudhi-haṁsa-ṛṣabha-nāga-kālañjara-nāradādayo viṁśati-girayo meroḥ karṇikāyā iva kesara-bhūtā mūla-deśe parita upakḷptāḥ.

SYNONYMS

kuraṅga — Kuraṅga; kurara — Kurara; kusumbha-vaikaṅka-trikūṭa-śiśira-pataṅga-rucaka-niṣadha-śinīvāsa-kapila-śaṅkha-vaidūrya-jārudhi-haṁsa-ṛṣabha-nāga-kālañjara-nārada — the names of mountains; ādayaḥ — and so on; viṁśati-girayaḥ — twenty mountains; meroḥ — of Sumeru Mountain; karṇikāyāḥ — of the whorl of the lotus; iva — like; kesara-bhūtāḥ — as filaments; mūla-deśe — at the base; paritaḥ — all around; upakḷptāḥ — arranged by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

TRANSLATION

There are other mountains beautifully arranged around the foot of Mount Meru like the filaments around the whorl of a lotus flower. Their names are Kuraṅga, Kurara, Kusumbha, Vaikaṅka, Trikūṭa, Śiśira, Pataṅga, Rucaka, Niṣadha, Sinīvāsa, Kapila, Śaṅkha, Vaidūrya, Jārudhi, Haṁsa, Ṛṣabha, Nāga, Kālañjara and Nārada.

VERSE 5.16.27

jaṭhara-devakūṭau meruṁ pūrveṇāṣṭādaśa-yojana-sahasram udagāyatau dvi-sahasraṁ pṛthu-tuṅgau bhavataḥ; evam apareṇa pavana-pāriyātrau dakṣiṇena kailāsa-karavīrau prāg-āyatāv evam uttaratas triśṛṅga-makarāv aṣṭabhir etaiḥ parisṛto ’gnir iva paritaś cakāsti kāñcana-giriḥ.

SYNONYMS

jaṭhara-devakūṭau — two mountains named Jaṭhara and Devakūṭa; merum — Sumeru Mountain; pūrveṇa — on the eastern side; aṣṭādaśa-yojana-sahasram — eighteen thousand yojanas; udagāyatau — stretching from north to south; dvi-sahasram — two thousand yojanas; pṛthu-tuṅgau — in width and height; bhavataḥ — there are; evam — similarly; apareṇa — on the western side; pavana-pāriyātrau — two mountains named Pavana and Pāriyātra; dakṣiṇena — on the southern side; kailāsa-karavīrau — two mountains named Kailāsa and Karavīra; prāk-āyatau — expanding east and west; evam — similarly; uttarataḥ — on the northern side; triśṛṅga-makarau — two mountains named Triśṛṅga and Makara; aṣṭabhiḥ etaiḥ — by these eight mountains; parisṛtaḥ — surrounded; agniḥ iva — like fire; paritaḥ — all over; cakāsti — brilliantly shines; kāñcana-giriḥ — the golden mountain named Sumeru, or Meru.

TRANSLATION

On the eastern side of Sumeru Mountain are two mountains named Jaṭhara and Devakūṭa, which extend to the north and south for 18,000 yojanas [144,000 miles]. Similarly, on the western side of Sumeru are two mountains named Pavana and Pāriyātra, which also extend north and south for the same distance. On the southern side of Sumeru are two mountains named Kailāsa and Karavīra, which extend east and west for 18,000 yojanas, and on the northern side of Sumeru, extending for the same distance east and west, are two mountains named Triśṛṅga and Makara. The width and height of all these mountains is 2,000 yojanas [16,000 miles]. Sumeru, a mountain of solid gold shining as brilliantly as fire, is surrounded by these eight mountains.

VERSE 5.16.28

meror mūrdhani bhagavata ātma-yoner madhyata upakḷptāṁ purīm ayuta-yojana-sāhasrīṁ sama-caturasrāṁ śātakaumbhīṁ vadanti.

SYNONYMS

meroḥ — of Sumeru Mountain; mūrdhani — on the head; bhagavataḥ — of the most powerful being; ātma-yoneḥ — of Lord Brahmā; madhyataḥ — in the middle; upakḷptām — situated; purīm — the great township; ayuta-yojana — ten thousand yojanas; sāhasrīm — one thousand; sama-caturasrām — of the same length on all sides; śāta-kaumbhīm — made entirely of gold; vadanti — the great learned sages say.

TRANSLATION

In the middle of the summit of Meru is the township of Lord Brahmā. Each of its four sides is calculated to extend for ten million yojanas [eighty million miles]. It is made entirely of gold, and therefore learned scholars and sages call it Śātakaumbhī.

VERSE 5.16.29

tām anuparito loka-pālānām aṣṭānāṁ yathā-diśaṁ yathā-rūpaṁ turīya-mānena puro ’ṣṭāv upakḷptāḥ.

SYNONYMS

tām — that great township named Brahmapurī; anuparitaḥ — surrounding; loka-pālānām — of the governors of the planets; aṣṭānām — eight; yathā-diśam — according to the directions; yathā-rūpam — in exact conformity with the township of Brahmapurī; turīya-mānena — by measurement only one fourth; puraḥ — townships; aṣṭau — eight; upakḷptāḥ — situated.

TRANSLATION

Surrounding Brahmapurī in all directions are the residences of the eight principal governors of the planetary systems, beginning with King Indra. These abodes are similar to Brahmapurī but are one fourth the size.