Mandukya Upanishad

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Mandukya Upanishad

Māṇḍūkya Upanishad

॥ माण्डुक्योपनिषत् ॥
|| māṇḍukyopaniṣat ||

The  Māṇḍūkya Upanishad is so named, probably after its seer Rishi Mundaka. It belongs to the Atharva Veda group of Upanishads.

In a short compass of only 12 mantrams, Māṇḍūkya Upanishad speaks of the entire range of human consciousness, beginning from the awakened state and ending in the Supreme Absolute state of super-consciousness where all objective relations and perceptions of duality are completely negated.

Verse ...  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

॥ अथ माण्डुक्योपनिषत् ॥
|| atha māṇḍukyopaniṣat ||

ॐ भद्रं कर्णेभिः शृणुयाम देवाः ।
भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः ।
स्थिरैरङ्गैस्तुष्टुवागँसस्तनूभिः ।
व्यशेम देवहितं यदायूः ।

auṁ bhadraṁ karṇebhiḥ śṛṇuyāma devāḥ |
bhadraṁ paśyemākṣabhiryajatrāḥ |
sthirairaṅgaistuṣṭuvāgaɱsastanūbhiḥ |
vyaśema devahitaṁ yadāyūḥ |

Om, May we Hear with our Ears what is Auspicious, O Devas,
May we See with our Eyes what is Auspicious, O Yajatrā,
May we Live with Contentment with Strong Body and Limbs.
May we Praise the God and sing His Glories
during our Lifespan Allotted to us by the Devas

1.

ॐ इत्येतदक्षरमिदँ सर्वं तस्योपव्याख्यानं
भूतं भवद् भविष्यदिति सर्वमोङ्कार एव
यच्चान्यत् त्रिकालातीतं तदप्योङ्कार एव ॥ १ ॥

auṁ ityetadakṣaramidaɱ sarvaṁ tasyopavyākhyānaṁ
bhūtaṁ bhavad bhaviṣyaditi sarvamoṅkāra eva
yaccānyat trikālātītaṁ tadapyoṅkāra eva || 1 ||

All is the letter AU. It is explained thus:
all that was, that is and that will be is the AU.
And also what is beyond all time is verily the AU.

2.

सर्वं ह्येतद् ब्रह्मायमात्मा ब्रह्म सोऽयमात्मा चतुष्पात् ॥ २ ॥

sarvaṁ hyetad brahmāyamātmā brahma so'yamātmā catuṣpāt || 2 ||

All this is assuredly Brahman,
and this Ātman is also Brahman.
That Ātman is four-footed.

3.

जागरितस्थानो बहिष्प्रज्ञः सप्ताङ्ग एकोनविंशतिमुखः स्थूल
भुग्वैश्वानरः प्रथमः पादः ॥ ३ ॥

jāgaritasthāno bahiṣprajñaḥ saptāṅga ekonaviṁśatimukhaḥ sthūla
bhugvaiśvānaraḥ prathamaḥ pādaḥ || 3 ||

The Vaiśvānara, whose field is waking life,
whose consciousness is outward,
who is the enjoyer of the gross,
seven-limbed and nineteen-mouthed

is the first foot (of the Ātman).

4.

स्वप्नस्थानोऽन्तः प्रज्ञाः सप्ताङ्ग एकोनविंशतिमुखः
प्रविविक्तभुक्तैजसो द्वितीयः पादः ॥ ४ ॥

svapnasthāno'ntaḥ prajñāḥ saptāṅga ekonaviṁśatimukhaḥ
praviviktabhuktaijaso dvitīyaḥ pādaḥ || 4 ||

The Tejas, whose field is dreaming life,
whose consciousness is inward,
who is seven-limbed, nineteen-mouthed,
enjoyer of the (subtle) mental impressions only,

is the second foot (of the Ātman).

5.

यत्र सुप्तो न कञ्चन कामं कामयते न कञ्चन स्वप्नं पश्यति तत्
सुषुप्तम् । सुषुप्तस्थान एकीभूतः प्रज्ञानघन एवानन्दमयो
ह्यानन्दभुक् चेतो मुखः प्राज्ञस्तृतीयः पादः ॥ ५ ॥

yatra supto na kañcana kāmaṁ kāmayate na kañcana svapnaṁ paśyati tat
suṣuptam | suṣuptasthāna ekībhūtaḥ prajñānaghana evānandamayo
hyānandabhuk ceto mukhaḥ prājñastṛtīyaḥ pādaḥ || 5 ||

When the sleeping man
does not desire any desirable objects,
nor dreams any dream,
that state is the deep sleep state.

The Prajña whose existence is in deep sleep plane,
unified of consciousness ingathered nothing else, of the form of bliss only,
verily, the enjoyer of bliss, whose mouth is knowledge,

is the third foot.

6.

एष सर्वेश्वरः एष सर्वज्ञ एषोऽन्तर्याम्येष योनिः सर्वस्य
प्रभवाप्ययौ हि भूतानाम् ॥ ६ ॥

eṣa sarveśvaraḥ eṣa sarvajña eṣo'ntaryāmyeṣa yoniḥ sarvasya
prabhavāpyayau hi bhūtānām || 6 ||

He is the Lord of all, the omniscient,
the controller and indweller of all,
the origin and dissolution of all beings
and the cause of all (existence).

7.

नान्तःप्रज्ञं न बहिष्प्रज्ञं नोभयतःप्रज्ञं न प्रज्ञानघनं
न प्रज्ञं नाप्रज्ञम् । अदृष्टमव्यवहार्यमग्राह्यमलक्षणं
अचिन्त्यमव्यपदेश्यमेकात्मप्रत्ययसारं प्रपञ्चोपशमं
शान्तं शिवमद्वैतं चतुर्थं मन्यन्ते स आत्मा स विज्ञेयः ॥ ७ ॥

nāntaḥprajñaṁ na bahiṣprajñaṁ nobhayataḥprajñaṁ na prajñānaghanaṁ
na prajñaṁ nāprajñam | adṛṣṭamavyavahāryamagrāhyamalakṣaṇaṁ
acintyamavyapadeśyamekātmapratyayasāraṁ prapañcopaśamaṁ
śāntaṁ śivamadvaitaṁ caturthaṁ manyante sa ātmā sa vijñeyaḥ ||7 ||

Neither inwards conscious, neither outwards conscious,
nor conscious of the intermediary state,
nor ingathered nothing else as to consciousness,
nor (total) consciousness, nor unconsciousness,
- what is invisible, unrelated, unperceivable,
devoid of all connotations, unthinkable, undefinable,
essentially of the nature of self-consciousness alone,
negation of all relative existence,
peaceful, of supreme bliss and unitary,

- is called the fourth foot (of the Ātman). He is to be realised.

8.

सोऽयमात्माध्यक्षरमोङ्करोऽधिमात्रं पादा मात्रा मात्राश्च पादा
अकार उकारो मकार इति ॥ ८ ॥

so'yamātmādhyakṣaramoṅkaro'dhimātraṁ pādā mātrā mātrāśca pādā
akāra ukāro makāra iti || 8 ||

That Ātman in the verbal form is AUṀ,
and in the forms of syllables, the feet;
the feet are the syllables and the syllables are the feet,
i.e. the letters A, U and M.

9.

जागरितस्थानो वैश्वानरोऽकारः प्रथमा
मात्राऽऽप्तेरादिमत्त्वाद्
वाऽऽप्नोति ह वै सर्वान् कामानादिश्च भवति य एवं वेद ॥ ९ ॥

jāgaritasthāno vaiśvānaro'kāraḥ prathamā
mātrā''pterādimattvād
vā''pnoti ha vai sarvān kāmānādiśca bhavati ya evaṁ veda|| 9 ||

The Vaiśvānara, whose field is the waking state of life is the letter A,
the first syllable, on account of its all-pervasiveness and priority,
- who knows it thus attains all desirable objects and priorities.

10.

स्वप्नस्थानस्तैजस उकारो द्वितीया मात्रोत्कर्षात्
उभयत्वाद्वोत्कर्षति ह वै ज्ञानसन्ततिं समानश्च भवति
नास्याब्रह्मवित्कुले भवति य एवं वेद ॥ १० ॥

svapnasthānastaijasa ukāro dvitīyā mātrotkarṣāt
ubhayatvādvotkarṣati ha vai jñānasantatiṁ samānaśca bhavati
nāsyābrahmavitkule bhavati ya evaṁ veda || 10 ||

The Tejas whose field is the dream-life is the letter U,
the second syllable, from its superiority and intermediary nature.
He who knows this increases his flow of knowledge and becomes equal to all;
no person ignorant of Brahman is ever born in his family.

11.

सुषुप्तस्थानः प्राज्ञो मकारस्तृतीया मात्रा मितेरपीतेर्वा
मिनोति ह वा इदं सर्वमपीतिश्च भवति य एवं वेद ॥ ११ ॥

suṣuptasthānaḥ prājño makārastṛtīyā mātrā miterapītervā
minoti ha vā idaṁ sarvamapītiśca bhavati ya evaṁ veda || 11 ||

The Prajña whose field is the deep sleep state is the third letter M,
on account of its being the measure and the final.
He who knows this, measures all (by his knowledge)
and becomes the support of all.

12.

अमात्रश्चतुर्थोऽव्यवहार्यः प्रपञ्चोपशमः शिवोऽद्वैत
एवमोङ्कार आत्मैव संविशत्यात्मनाऽऽत्मानं य एवं वेद ॥ १२ ॥

amātraścaturtho'vyavahāryaḥ prapañcopaśamaḥ śivo'dvaita
evamoṅkāra ātmaiva saṁviśatyātmanā''tmānaṁ ya evaṁ veda || 12 ||

The transcendental, unitary state of supreme bliss,
devoid of all phenomenal existence
is the syllable-less, the fourth (aspect)
– thus AU is verily the Ātman.
By self he enters the Self, who knows thus!

॥ इति माण्डुक्योपनिषत् समाप्ता ॥
|| iti māṇḍukyopaniṣat samāptā ||

Here ends Māṇḍūkya Upanishad