Mandukya Upanishad


1. "Om" this is immortal. Its explanation is this all; what was, what is, and what will be, all is verily the word "Om;” and everything else which is beyond the threefold time is also verily the word "Om."

2. For this all (represented by "Om") is Brahma; this soul is Brahma. This soul has four conditions.

3. The first condition is Vaiśvānara, whose place is in the waking state, whose knowledge are external objects, who has seven members, who has nineteen mouths, (and) who enjoys the gross (objects).

4. His second condition is Taijasa, whose place is in dream whose knowledge are the internal objects, who has seven members, nineteen mouths (and) enjoys the subtle (objects) .

5. When the sleeper desires no desires, sees no dream, this is sound sleep. His third condition is Prajña (who completely knows) who has become one, whose knowledge is uniform alone, whose nature is like bliss, who enjoys bliss, and whose mouth is knowledge.

6. He (the Prajña) is the lord of all; he is omniscient, he is the internal ruler; he is the source of all; for he is the origin and destruction of (all) beings.

7. They think the fourth him, whose knowledge are not internal objects, nor internal, nor both, who has not uniform knowledge, who is not intelligent and not unintelligent, who is invisible, imperceptible, unseizable, incapable of proof, beyond thought, not to be defined, whose only proof is the belief in the soul, in whom all the spheres}: have ceased, who is tranquil, blissful, and without duality. 

8. This soul depends upon the word "Om," which depends upon its parts. The conditions (of the soul) are parts (of the "Om"), these parts conditions. (Those parts are) the letters A, U, and M.

9. Vaiśvānara, who abides in the waking state, is the letter A, the first part, (either) from pervading (aptēh), or from its being the first (letter). He verily obtains all desires and is the first who thus knows.

10. Taijasa who abides in dream, is the letter U, the second part, from its being more elevated or from its being in the midst. He verily elevates the continuance of knowledge, and becomes the like (to friend and foe) and has no descendant ignorant of Brahma who thus knows.

11. Prajña (the perfect wise) who abides in deep sleep, is the letter M, the third part, from its being a measure (mitēh), or from its being of one and the same nature. He verily measures this all and becomes of the same nature who thus knows.

12. (The " Om") which is without part is the fourth (condition of Brahma) which is imperceptible in which all the spheres have ceased, which is blissful (and) without duality. The "Om," thus (meditated upon) is soul alone. He enters with his soul the soul, who thus knows, who thus knows.

Māṇḍūkya Upanishad
English Translation
Translated by E. Röer
Originally published in Bibliotheca Indica