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Muktikā Upanishad

Muktika Upanishad

Om!
That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite;
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.

Om! Let there be Peace in me!
Let there be Peace in my environment!
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me!

I-i-1-6.

In the beautiful city of Ayodhyā, in the centre of a pavilion set with gems, together with Sītā, Bhārata, Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna, was Rāma seated, glorified day and night by sages like Śanaka, Vasiṣṭha and Śūka as well as other devotees, unchanging witness of thousands of modifications of the intellect, delighted in contemplating his own form.

At the end of this Samādhi, Hanuman asked with devotion:

‘O Rāma, you are the supreme being, of the nature of Sat, Chit and Ānanda. I desire to know your nature truly for liberation. Please tell me how I can be released from bondage without strain.

I-i-7-14.

Rāma: Well asked. I shall tell you. I am well established in Vedānta.

Hanuman: What is Vedānta and where is it?

Rāma: The Vedas in all their great extent are my breath; Vedānta is well grounded in them, like oil in sesame.
Hanuman:

How many are the Vedas and how many branches do they have? Of these what are the Upanishads?

Rāma:

Vedas are four, Ṛig-Veda etc., many branches and Upanishads exist in them:

Ṛig-Veda has 21 branches and Yajur has 109. Sāma has 1000 and Atharva has 50.

Each branch has one Upanishad. Even by reading one verse of them with devotion, one gets the status of union with me, hard to get even by sages.

I-i-15-17.

Hanuman:

Rāma, sages speak differently:

- some say there is only one kind of liberation.
- Others say it can be got by worshipping your name and by the Tārakā mantra at Kāśī.
- Others speak of Sānkhya-Yoga and Bhakti-Yoga, the enquiry into Vedānta-Vākyas etc.

I-i-18-23.

Rāma:

Liberation is of four kinds: Sālokya etc. But the only real type is Kaivalya.

Anybody even though leading a wicked life, attains Sālokya, not other worlds, by worshiping my name. Dying in the sacred Brahmanala in Kāśī, he will get the Tāraka-mantra and also liberation, without rebirth. On dying anywhere (else) in Kāśī, Maheśvara will utter the Tārakā-mantra in his Right ear. He gets Sārūpya with me as his sins are washed away.

The same is called Sālokya and Sārūpya.

Persevering in good conduct, with mind fixed upon me, loving me as the Self of all, the twice-born gets nearer to me

- This is called the three forms of Liberation: Sālokya, Sārūpya and Sāmīpya.

I-i-24-25.

Meditating on my eternal form as prescribed by the Teacher, one will surely achieve identity with me like the insects changing into the bee. This alone is the liberation of identity (Sāyujya)yielding the bliss of Brahman.

All these four kinds of Mukti will be reached by worshiping Me.

I-i-26-29.

But by what means is the Kaivalya kind of Moksha is reached?

The Māṇḍūkya is enough; if knowledge is not got from it, then study the Ten Upanishads. Getting knowledge very soon, you will reach my abode. If certainty is not got even then, study the 32 Upanishads and stop.

If desiring Moksha without the body, read the 108 Upanishads!

Hear their order:

I-i-30-39.

1. Īśa Upanishad
2. Kena Upanishad
3. Katha Upanishad
4. Praśna Upanishad
5. Muṇḍaka Upanishad
6. Māṇḍūkya Upanishad
7. Taittirīya Upanishad
8. Aitareya Upanishad
9. Chāṇḍogya Upanishad
10. Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad
11. Brahma Upanishad
12. Kaivalya Upanishad
13. Jābāla Upanishad
14. Śvetāśvatara Upanishad
15. Hamsa Upanishad
16. Aruṇī Upanishad
17. Garbha Upanishad
18. Nārāyaṇa Upanishad
19. Paramahamsa Upanishad
20. Amritā-bindu Upanishad
21. Amritanada Upanishad
22. Atahrvaśirah Upanishad
23. Atharvasikha Upanishad
24. Maitrāyaṇī Upanishad
25. Kaushitaki-brāhmaṇa Upanishad
26. Brihajjabala Upanishad
27. Nrisimha Tapinī Upanishad
28. Kalagnirudra Upanishad
29. Maitreya Upanishad
30. Subala Upanishad
31. Kshurika Upanishad
32. Mantrika Upanishad
33. Sarvasara Upanishad
34. Niralamba Upanishad
35. Sukarahasya Upanishad
36. Vajrasuchika Upanishad
37. Tejo Bindu Upanishad
38. Nādabindu Upanishad
39. Dhyanabindu Upanishad
40. Brahmāvidyā Upanishad
41. Yogatattva Upanishad
42. Atmabodha Upanishad
43. Naradaparivrajaka Upanishad
44. Trisikhi Upanishad
45. Sītā Upanishad
46. Yogachudamani Upanishad
47. Nirvāna Upanishad
48. Mandalabrahmana Upanishad
49. Dakṣiṇāmūrti Upanishad
50. Sarabha Upanishad
51. Skanda Upanishad
52. Tripadvibhuti-Mahānārāyaṇa Upanishad
53. Advayataraka Upanishad
54. Rāma-rahasya Upanishad

55. Rāma-tapani Upanishad
56. Vāsudeva Upanishad
57. Mudgala Upanishad
58. Śāṇḍilya Upanishad
59. Paiṅgala Upanishad
60. Bhiksu Upanishad
61. Mahat Upanishad
62. Sariraka Upanishad
63. Yogasikha Upanishad
64. Turiyatita Upanishad
65. Sannyāsa Upanishad
66. Paramahamsa-Parivrājaka Upanishad
67. Akṣa mālika Upanishad
68. Avyakta Upanishad
69. Ekakshara Upanishad
70. Annapurna Upanishad
71. Sūrya Upanishad
72. Akshi Upanishad
73. Adhyatma Upanishad
74. Kuṇdikā Upanishad
75. Sāvitri Upanishad
76. Ātma Upanishad
77. Pāśupata Upanishad
78. Parabrahma Upanishad
79. Avadhutaka Upanishad
80. Tripuratapini Upanishad
81. Devī Upanishad
82. Tripura Upanishad
83. Katharudra Upanishad
84. Bhāvana Upanishad
85. Rudra-hridaya Upanishad
86. Yoga-Kuṇḍalī Upanishad
87. Bhaṣma Upanishad
88. Rudrākṣa Upanishad
89. Ganapati Upanishad
90. Darśana Upanishad
91. Tarasara Upanishad
92. Mahāvākya Upanishad
93. Pañcha-brahma Upanishad
94. Prāṇāgnihotra Upanishad
95. Gopalatapini Upanishad
96. Krishna Upanishad
97. Yājñyavalkya Upanishad
98. Vārāha Upanishad
99. Satyayani Upanishad
100. Hayagriva Upanishad
101. Dattātreya Upanishad
102. Garuḍa Upanishad
103. Kali-santarana Upanishad
104. Jābāli Upanishad
105. Saubhāgya-Lakṣmī Upanishad
106. Sarasvati-rahasya Upanishad
107. Bahvricha Upanishad
108. Muktikā Upanishad

I-i-40-43.

These destroy three kinds of Bhāvana (regarding) body, senses and mind respectively as identified with Ātman.

The best of Brāhmaṇas will become Jīvanmuktas if they study up to the destruction of Prārabdha, these 108 Upanishads from a Guru along with the Shanti-pāda. Then, in course of time they will get Videha-mukti, surely.

I-i-44-52.

These 108 are the essence of all Upanishads and can cut away all sins by merely hearing once. These cause release whether read with or without knowledge.

One may give away a kingdom, wealth etc., to one who asks, but not these 108 to just anyone - to an unbeliever (nāstika), ungrateful, of bad conduct, one against devotion to me, deluded by wrong scripture or lacking devotion to the Guru.

But they shall be taught to one devoted to service, devotee, of good conduct, birth and wisdom. He should be well tested.

A Ṛig verse on this: The goddess of knowledge came to a Brāhmaṇa and said:

‘Protect me, I am your treasure, do not teach me to one who is jealous, dishonest and deceitful – then I shall powerful, but give it to one who is learned, careful, wise and celibate, after examining him’.

I-ii-1.

Then Māruti asked Śrī Rāmachandra thus:

Please relate to me separately the Shanti-mantras of the different Vedas, Ṛig etc.

Śrī Rāma then said: "My speech rests on my mind .. " [

ॐ वाङ् मे मनसि प्रतिष्ठिता ।
मनो मे वाचि प्रतिष्ठितम् ।
आविराविर्म एधि ।
वेदस्य म आणीस्थः ।
श्रुतं मे मा प्रहासीः
अनेनाधीतेनाहोरात्रान्सन्दधामि ।

auṁ vāṅ me manasi pratiṣṭhitā |
mano me vāci pratiṣṭhitam |
āvirāvirma edhi |
vedasya ma āṇīsthaḥ |
śrutaṁ me mā prahāsīḥ
anenādhītenāhorātrānsandadhāmi |

Om, Let My Speech be Established in My Mind,
Let My Mind be Established in My Speech,
Let the Knowledge of the Self-Manifest Atman Grow in Me,
Let My Mind and Speech be the Support to Experience the Knowledge of the Vedas,
Let what is Heard by Me (from the Vedas) be Not a mere Appearance ...
 ... but what is Gained by Studying Day and Night be Retained.

ऋतं वदिष्यामि ।
सत्यं वदिष्यामि ।
तन्मामवतु ।
तद्वक्तारमवतु ।
अवतु माम् ।
अवतु वक्तारामवतु वक्तारम् ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

ṛtaṁ vadiṣyāmi |
satyaṁ vadiṣyāmi |
tanmāmavatu |
tadvaktāramavatu |
avatu mām |
avatu vaktārāmavatu vaktāram ||
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ||

I Speak about the Divine Truth,
I Speak about the Absolute Truth,
May That Protect Me,
May That Protect the Preceptor,
May that Protect Me,
May that Protect the Preceptor, May that Protect the Preceptor,
Om Peace, Peace, Peace.].

This is the Shanti-mantra of the following ten Upanishads forming part of the Ṛig-Veda:

1. Aitareya Upanishad
2. Kaushitaki-brāhmaṇa Upanishad
3. Nāda-bindu Upanishad
4. Ātma-bodha Upanishad
5. Nirvāna Upanishad

6. Mudgala Upanishad
7. Akṣa-mālika Upanishad
8. Tripura Upanishad
9. Saubhāgya-Lakshmi Upanishad
10. Bahvricha Upanishad

I-ii-2.

"That (which lies beyond) is full" [

ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पुर्णमुदच्यते
पूर्णश्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

auṁ pūrṇamadaḥ pūrṇamidaṁ pūrṇātpurṇamudacyate
pūrṇaśya pūrṇamādāya pūrṇamevāvaśiṣyate ||
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ||

That (Brahman) is whole. This (jagat) is whole.
From that (Brahman) whole, this (jagat) whole has come.
This (jagat) whole (in spite of) having come from that (Brahman) whole,
Whole (Brahman) alone remains.
Om Peace Peace Peace. ] - and so on:

This is the Shanti-mantra of the following Nineteen Upanishads, forming part of the Śukla Yajur Veda:

1. Īśa Upanishad
2. Brihadāraṇyaka Upanishad
3. Jabālā Upanishad
4. Hamsa Upanishad
5. Paramahamsa Upanishad
6. Subala Upanishad
7. Mantrika Upanishad
8. Niralamba Upanishad
9. Triśikhī-brāhmaṇa Upanishad
10. Maṇḍala-brāhmaṇa Upanishad

11. Advaya-Tāraka Upanishad
12. Paiṅgala Upanishad
13. Bhikṣu Upanishad
14. Turyātīta Upanishad
15. Adhyātma Upanishad
16. Tarasara Upanishad
17. Yājñyavalkya Upanishad
18. Satyayani Upanishad
19. Muktikā Upanishad

I-ii-3.

"May (the Brahman of the Upanishads) protect us both" [

ॐ सह नाववतु ।
सह नौ भुनक्तु ।
सह वीर्यं करवावहै ।
तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु मा विद्विषावहै ।
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

auṁ saha nāvavatu |
saha nau bhunaktu |
saha vīryaṁ karavāvahai |
tejasvi nāvadhītamastu mā vidviṣāvahai |
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ||

Om, May God Protect us Both (the Teacher and the Student),
May God Nourish us Both,
May we Work Together with Energy and Vigour,
May our Study be Enlightening and not give rise to Hostility,
Om, Peace, Peace, Peace. ] - and so on:

This is the Shanti-mantra of the following Thirty-Two Upanishads, forming part of the Krishna-Yajur-Veda:

1. Katha Upanishad
2. Taittirīya Upanishad
3. Brahma Upanishad
4. Kaivalya Upanishad
5. Śvetāśvatara Upanishad
6. Garbha Upanishad
7. Nārāyaṇa Upanishad
8. Amrita-bindu Upanishad
9. Amritanada Upanishad
10. Kalagni-rudra Upanishad
11. Kshurika Upanishad
12. Sarvasara Upanishad
13. Sukarahasya Upanishad
14. Tejo Bindu Upanishad
15. Dhyāna-bindu Upanishad
16. Brahmāvidyā Upanishad

17. Yogatattva Upanishad
18. Dakṣiṇāmūrti Upanishad
19. Skanda Upanishad
20. Sariraka Upanishad
21. Yogasikha Upanishad
22. Ekakshara Upanishad
23. Akshi Upanishad
24. Avadhūta Upanishad
25. Katha-rudra Upanishad
26. Rudra-hridaya Upanishad
27. Yoga-kundalini Upanishad
28. Pañchabrahma Upanishad
29. Prāṇāgnihotra Upanishad
30. Vārāha Upanishad
31. Kali-santarana Upanishad
32. Sarasvatī-rahasya Upanishad

I-ii-4.

"May the unseen powers nourish" [

ॐ आप्यायन्तु ममाङ्गानि वाक्प्राणश्चक्षुः
श्रोत्रमथो बलमिन्द्रियाणि च सर्वाणि ।
सर्वं ब्रह्मौपनिषदं
माऽहं ब्रह्म निराकुर्यां मा मा ब्रह्म
निराकरोदनिराकरणमस्त्वनिराकरणं मेऽस्तु ।
तदात्मनि निरते य
उपनिषत्सु धर्मास्ते मयि सन्तु ते मयि सन्तु ।

auṁ āpyāyantu mamāṅgāni vākprāṇaścakṣuḥ
śrotramatho balamindriyāṇi ca sarvāṇi |
sarvaṁ brahmaupaniṣadaṁ
mā'haṁ brahma nirākuryāṁ mā mā brahma
nirākarodanirākaraṇamastvanirākaraṇaṁ me'stu |
tadātmani nirate ya
upaniṣatsu dharmāste mayi santu te mayi santu |

May my limbs, speech, energy, eyes, ear and vitality as well as all the other senses become more vigorous. All are that Brahman of the Upanishads. May I never deny Brahman, nor may Brahman deny me. Let there be no denial at all; let there be no denial at least from me. May all the virtues that dwell in the Upanishads reside in me, who am devoted to the Ātman!

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ||

Om Peace! Peace! Peace! ] - and so on:

This is the Shanti-mantra of the following Sixteen Upanishads forming part of the Sāma Veda:

1. Kena Upanishad
2. Chāṇḍogya Upanishad
3. Aruṇī Upanishad
4. Maitrāyaṇī Upanishad
5. Maitreya Upanishad
6. Vajra-suchika Upanishad
7. Yoga-chuḍāmaṇi Upanishad
8. Vāsudeva Upanishad

9. Mahat Upanishad
10. Sannyāsa Upanishad
11. Avyakta Upanishad
12. Kuṇdikā Upanishad
13. Savitri Tapinī Upanishad
14. Rudrākṣa-Jābāla Upanishad
15. Darśana Upanishad
16. Jābāli Upanishad

I-ii-5.

"May we hear with our ears the auspicious truths of the Vedānta"

[ॐ भद्रं कर्णेभिः शृणुयाम देवाः ।
भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः ।
स्थिरैरङ्गैस्तुष्टुवागँसस्तनूभिः ।
व्यशेम देवहितं यदायूः ।

auṁ bhadraṁ karṇebhiḥ śṛṇuyāma devāḥ |
bhadraṁ paśyemākṣabhiryajatrāḥ |
sthirairaṅgaistuṣṭuvāgaɱsastanūbhiḥ |
vyaśema devahitaṁ yadāyūḥ |

Om, May we Hear with our Ears what is Auspicious, O Devas,
May we See with our Eyes what is Auspicious, O Yajatrā,
May we Live with Contentment with Strong Body and Limbs.
May we Praise the God and sing His Glories during our Lifespan Allotted to us by the Devas,

स्वस्ति न इन्द्रो वृद्धश्रवाः ।
स्वस्ति नः पूषा विश्ववेदाः ।
स्वस्ति नस्ताक्षर्यो अरिष्टनेमिः ।
स्वस्ति नो वृहस्पतिर्दधातु ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

svasti na indro vṛddhaśravāḥ |
svasti naḥ pūṣā viśvavedāḥ |
svasti nastākṣaryo ariṣṭanemiḥ |
svasti no vṛhaspatirdadhātu ||

May Lord Indra of Great Fame increase our Well-Being and Prosperity,
May Lord Pūshan, who is All-Knowing, bless us with Well-Being and Prosperity,
May Lord Garuda, who is the Protector, bless us with Well-Being and Prosperity,
May Lord Brihaspati also Bless us with Well-Being and Prosperity,

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ..
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ..

Om Peace! Peace!Peace! ] – and so on:

This is the Shanti-mantra of the following Thirty-One Upanishads of the Atharva Veda:

1. Praśna Upanishad
2. Muṇḍaka Upanishad
3. Māṇḍūkya Upanishad
4. Atahrvasiras Upanishad
5. Atharvasikha Upanishad
6. Brihajjabala Upanishad
7. Nrisimha-tapini Upanishad
8. Nārada-Parivrājaka Upanishad
9. Sītā Upanishad
10. Sarabha Upanishad
11. Tripadvibhuti-Mahānārāyaṇa Upanishad
12. Rāma-rahasya Upanishad
13. Rāma-Tapinī Upanishad
14. Śāṇḍilya Upanishad
15. Paramahamsa-Parivrājaka Upanishad
16. Annapūrṇā Upanishad

17. Sūrya Upanishad
18. Ātma Upanishad
19. Pāśupata-brāhmaṇa Upanishad
20. Parabrahma Upanishad
21. Tripura Tapinī Upanishad
22. Devī Upanishad
23. Bhāvana Upanishad
24. Bhaṣma-Jābāla Upanishad
25. Ganapati Upanishad
26. Mahāvākya Upanishad
27. Gopāla-Tapinī Upanishad
28. Krishna Upanishad
29. Hayagriva Upanishad
30. Dattātreya Upanishad
31. Garuda Upanishad

I-ii-6.

Men who are seekers after Liberation and well-equipped with the four requisite means!

Approach properly, with gifts in the hands, a good teacher who is dedicated, belonging to a good family, well-versed in the Vedas, interested in the scriptures, of good quality, straightforward, interested in the welfare of all creatures, compassionate

and learn in the prescribed manner the one hundred and eight Upanishads; study them through listening, reflection and deep absorption continuously;

the accumulated Karmas will be dissolved, the three kinds of bodies (gross, subtle and causal) are abandoned and like the ether of the pot when released from its Upādhi,

rise to the level of fullness called Videha-mukti. This indeed is the Absolute Liberation (Kaivalya-mukti). That is why even those in the Brahma-loka, get identity with Brahman after listening to the Upanishads from his mouth.

And for everyone Absolute Liberation is stated to be (attainable) only through inner wisdom; not through Karma rituals, not through Sānkhya-Yoga or worship.

Thus the Upanishad.

II-i-1.

Then Hanuman asked Rāmachandra:

What is this Jīvanmukti, Videha-mukti? What is the authority, means of success and purpose?

Rāma said:

For a person there is bondage from doer-ship, enjoyer-ship, pleasure, pain etc., -- their prevention is liberation in the body.

Videha-mukti (liberation without the body) is from the destruction of Prārabdha (operative) karma, like the space in a pot released from the conditioning (enclosing) pot.

For both the authority is the 108 Upanishads.

The purpose is eternal happiness through the stopping of the misery of doer-ship etc.

This can be achieved by human effort just as a son is got by putra-kāma sacrifice, wealth by trade etc., and heaven by Jyotiṣṭoma.

II-ii-1-9.

There are these verses:

Human effort is said to be of the two kinds: For and against the Shastras - the former gives disaster, the latter the ultimate reality.

True knowledge does not come to one from latent impressions through the world, Shastras and the body.

Such impressions are two-fold: good and bad; if you are induced by the good, you shall reach me gradually but quickly; the bad ones involved lead to trouble and should be overcome with effort.

The river of impression flowing through good and bad paths, must be turned into the good path with human effort - One should fondle the mind-child with human effort.

When by means of practice, good impressions arise, then the practice has been fruitful. Even when this is in doubt, practice only the good tendencies - there shall be no fault.

II-ii-10-15.

The destruction of impressions, cultivation of knowledge and destruction of the mind - when practised together for long will yield fruit. If not practised together, there will be no success even after hundreds of years, like mantras which are scattered.

When these three are practised long, the knots of the heart surely are broken, like lotus fibre and the stalk.

The false impression of worldly life is got in a hundred lives and cannot be destroyed without long practice. So avoid desire of enjoyment as a distance with effort and practise the three.

II-ii-16.

The wise know that the mind is bound by the impressions; it is liberated when released well from them. So, O Hanuman, practice the destruction of mental impression, quickly.

II-ii-17-18.

When impressions die out, the mind becomes put out like a lamp. Whoever gives up impressions and concentrates on Me without strain, he becomes Bliss.

II-ii-19-23.

Whether he concentrates on actions or not, when he avoids all the desires of the heart, he is doubtlessly liberated. He has nothing to gain from action or inaction. If his mind is not freed from impressions even Samādhi and Japa cannot give fruit.

The highest place cannot be reached without silence free from impressions.

Sense organs like the eye go towards external objects without voluntary impression but because of the latent impression just as the eye falls voluntarily without attachment on external objects, so the man of wisdom operates in work.

II-ii-24-31.

The sages know that Vāsanā (impressions) comprises all objects generated by creative faculty of the mind in attaining or avoiding them.

The very unsteady mind which is the cause of birth, old age and death is generated by desire for objects in excess:

By the influence of Vāsanā there is the pulsation of Prāṇa, from it comes Vāsanā (again) like seed and sprout.

For the tree of the human mind, the pulsation and Vāsanā are two seeds - when one dies both die. Latent impressions stop operating through detached behaviour, avoidance of worldly thought and realization that the body is mortal.

The mind becomes non-mind by giving up Vāsanās:

When the mind does not think, then arises mindlessness giving great peace;

so long as your mind has not fully evolved, being ignorant of the supreme reality, perform what has been laid down by the teacher, Shastra and other sources.

Then with impurity ripened (and destroyed) and Truth understood, you should give up even the good impressions.

II-ii-32-37.

In a Jīvanmukta the destruction of the mind is with form - in a Videhamukta it is formless - when you achieve it, the mind with qualities like friendliness will surely attain peace. The mind of the Jīvanmukta has no rebirth.

The mind is the root of the tree of Samsāra which has thousands of sprouts, branches, fruits etc. I take the mind to be nothing but construction; make it dry in such a way that the tree also is dried up.

II-ii-38-47.

There is only one means for overpowering mind: Shooting up of one’s mind is one’s undoing, its destruction is good fortune.

The mind of the knower is destroyed; it is a chain for the ignorant. As long as the mind is not defeated by means of firm practice, the impressions jump in the heart like ghosts at night.

The impressions of enjoyment die, like lotus in winter, for one whose mental pride is reduced and the senses - the enemies - are defeated.

One should at first conquer the mind, hands locked in hands, teeth set on teeth and limbs subdued.

The mind cannot be conquered without defectless reasoning (methods) by merely sitting, just as an elephant in rut without a goad.

The reasons (methods) well-nourished in mind-conquest are knowledge of Vedānta, contact with good people, giving up impressions and stopping of the pulsation of Prāṇa.

Those who ignore these and control the mind by force, throw away the lamp and search in darkness by means of soot, also (try to) bind an elephant in rut by lotus fibre.

II-ii-48-50.

The tree of mind, bearing the weight of the creepers of thought, has two seeds:

- the pulsation of Prāṇa and strong impressions.

All pervasive consciousness is shaken by the pulsation of Prāṇa - In contrast, by means of concentration the knowledge arises.

The Dhyāna, its means, is now imparted. Dissolving thought totally in the reverse order, think only of the remaining pure consciousness.

II-ii-51-56.

After the Apāna sets and before Prāṇa arises in the heart, there exists the state of Kumbhaka (immobility) experienced by Yogins.

Kumbhaka in the external form is the fullness of Prāṇa after in-breath disappears and out-breath arises.

By repeatedly practising meditation of Brahman without ego, Samprajñāta Samādhi will be acquired. The Asamprajñāta Samādhi, loved by Yogins, is (from) the mind giving great bliss after (all) the mental modifications (thoughts) die away. It is valued by sages, being the spirit devoid of the light (of ego), of the mind (of dream) and of the intellect (in deep sleep).

This concentration is other than what is not Brahman. Full above, below and in the middle the essence of goodness - this state, prescribed by the Upanishads, is the ultimate reality.

II-ii-57-60.

Latent impression is that unexamined grasping of objects by persistent imagination.

What one brings into being, through intense dispassion by one’s self, is realized quickly, devoid of opposite impressions.

Influenced by impressions, a person looks upon those things as reality by the peculiarity of the impressions; the ignorant person sees the spirit wrongly though it does not lose its own nature.

II-ii-61-68.

The impure impression binds, the pure destroys birth. The impure one is solid ignorance and ego, causes rebirth. The restful state is like the roasted seed, giving up the (sprout of) rebirth.

Can the inner light be sought with chewing the cud of many Shastras, uselessly?

One who remains alone giving up perception as well as non-perception is himself the Brahman - A person cannot know Brahman by merely learning the four Vedas and Shastras, as the ladle cannot taste the food.

If a person does not get detachment by the bad smell of his own body, what other cause of detachment can be taught?

The body is very impure - the soul is pure. When one knows the difference, what purification need be prescribed?

Bondage is by impressions, Moksha is their destruction - you give them up as well as the desire for Moksha.

II-ii-69-71.

Give up mental impressions of objects and cultivate pure impressions like friendship;

then, discarding even these while acting according to them, putting down all desires, have only the impression of consciousness. Give up these too along with mind and intellect; concentrate only on me.

II-ii-72-77.

Contemplate me as devoid of sound, touch, form, taste and smell, eternal, indestructible, without name and family, destroying all suffering, the nature of vision like the sky, the one syllable Om, un-smearing though omnipresent, unique, without bondage, forward, across, above, below, I fill ever place.

Unborn, ageless, shining by myself, not the cause or effect, ever contented when the body dies away, giving up the state of Jivanmukta, one enter the Videhamukti stage.

So says the Ṛig:

That supreme place of Vishnu the sages see ever - like an eye extended in heaven.

The wise and awakened persons, free from emotions, keep it alight.

Om - This is the Upanishad.

Om!

That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite.
The infinite proceeds from the infinite;
(Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe),
It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone.

Om! Let there be Peace in me!
Let there be Peace in my environment!
Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me!

Here ends the Muktikā Upanishad belonging to the Śukla Yajur-Veda.


Translated by Dr. A. G. Krishna Warrier