Prashna Upanishad

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Prashna Upanishad

Prashna Upanishad

.. प्रश्नोपनिषत्  ..
.. praśnopaniṣat ..

Praśna Upanishad has derived its name from the Six Questions it contains and it belongs to the Atharva Veda. There are six chapters in the Praśna Upanishad and each begins with a question.

The first question refers to the origin of the created beings, the second to the constituents of the human personality, the third to the nature and origin of Prāṇa, the fourth is about the psychological aspect of the human personality, the fifth is about Prāṇava OM, and the sixth is about metaphysical principle in man.

1 Prashna: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

2 Prashna: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

3 Prashna: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

4 Prashna: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

5 Prashna: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

6 Prashna: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

ॐ भद्रं कर्णेभिः शृणुयाम देवाः ।
भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः ।
स्थिरैरङ्गैस्तुष्टुवागँसस्तनूभिः ।
व्यशेम देवहितं यदायूः ।

auṁ bhadraṁ karṇebhiḥ śṛṇuyāma devāḥ |
bhadraṁ paśyemākṣabhiryajatrāḥ |
sthirairaṅgaistuṣṭuvāgaɱsastanūbhiḥ |
vyaśema devahitaṁ yadāyūḥ |

Om, May we Hear with our Ears what is Auspicious, O Devas,
May we See with our Eyes what is Auspicious, O Yajatrā,
May we Live with Contentment with Strong Body and Limbs.
May we Praise the God and sing His Glories
during our Lifespan Allotted to us by the Devas,

स्वस्ति न इन्द्रो वृद्धश्रवाः ।
स्वस्ति नः पूषा विश्ववेदाः ।
स्वस्ति नस्ताक्षर्यो अरिष्टनेमिः ।
स्वस्ति नो वृहस्पतिर्दधातु ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

svasti na indro vṛddhaśravāḥ |
svasti naḥ pūṣā viśvavedāḥ |
svasti nastākṣaryo ariṣṭanemiḥ |
svasti no vṛhaspatirdadhātu ||

May Lord Indra of Great Fame increase our Well-Being and Prosperity,
May Lord Pūshan, who is All-Knowing, bless us with Well-Being and Prosperity,
May Lord Garuda, who is the Protector, bless us with Well-Being and Prosperity,
May Lord Brihaspati also Bless us with Well-Being and Prosperity,

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ..
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ..

Om Peace! Peace!Peace!

प्रथमः प्रश्नः
prathamaḥ praśnaḥ

First Question

ॐ नमः परमात्मने । हरि ॐ
auṁ namaḥ paramātmane | hari auṁ

I - 1

ॐ सुकेशा च भारद्वाजः शैब्यश्च सत्यकामः सौर्यायणी
च गार्ग्यः कौसल्यश्चाश्वलायनो भार्गवो वैदर्भिः कबन्धी
कात्यायनस्ते हैते ब्रह्मपरा ब्रह्मनिष्ठाः परं
ब्रह्मान्वेषमाणा एष ह वै तत्सर्वं वक्ष्यतीति ते ह
समित्पाणयो भगवन्तं पिप्पलादमुपसन्नाः ॥ १ ॥

auṁ sukeśā ca bhāradvājaḥ śaibyaśca satyakāmaḥ sauryāyaṇī
ca gārgyaḥ kausalyaścāśvalāyano bhārgavo vaidarbhiḥ kabandhī
kātyāyanaste haite brahmaparā brahmaniṣṭhāḥ paraṁ
brahmānveṣamāṇā eṣa ha vai tatsarvaṁ vakṣyatīti te ha
samitpāṇayo bhagavantaṁ pippalādamupasannāḥ || 1 ||

Sukeśa – the son of Bharadvāja,
Satyakāma – the son of Śibi,
the grand-son of Sūrya of the Garga Gotra,
Kausalya –the son of Aśvala,
Bhārgava of Vidarbha,
Kabandhīn – the son of Katya

– they all were devoted to Brahman and steadfast in Brahman
and were in search of the supreme Brahman.

With sacrificial fuel in hand
they approached the venerable Pippalāda,
thinking that he would tell them all that.

I - 2

तन् ह स ऋषिरुवच भूय एव तपसा ब्रह्मचर्येण श्रद्धया
संवत्सरं संवत्स्यथ
यथाकामं प्रश्नान् पृच्छत यदि विज्ञास्यामः सर्वं ह वो
वक्ष्याम इति ॥  २ ॥

tan ha sa ṛṣiruvaca bhūya eva tapasā brahmacaryeṇa śraddhayā
saṁvatsaraṁ saṁvatsyatha
yathākāmaṁ praśnān pṛcchata yadi vijñāsyāmaḥ sarvaṁ ha vo
vakṣyāma iti || 2 ||

The Ṛiṣi said to them:

Live again a year more in penance, abstinence and faith;
then you may ask questions according to your desire;
If I know them, assuredly I shall tell all to you.

I - 3

अथ कबन्धी कत्यायन उपेत्य पप्रच्छ ।
भगवन् कुते ह वा इमाः प्रजाः प्रजायन्त  इति ॥  ३ ॥

atha kabandhī katyāyana upetya papraccha |
bhagavan kute ha vā imāḥ prajāḥ prajāyanta iti || 3 ||

Then Katyāyana Kabandhīn having approached (Pippalāda) asked (him):

“Venerable Sir, whence are these creatures born?”

I - 4

तस्मै स होवाच प्रजाकामो वै प्रजापतिः स तपोऽतप्यत
स तपस्तप्त्वा स मिथुनमुत्पादयते । रयिं च प्रणं
चेत्येतौ मे बहुधा प्रजाः करिष्यत इति ॥  ४ ॥

tasmai sa hovāca prajākāmo vai prajāpatiḥ sa tapo'tapyata
sa tapastaptvā sa mithunamutpādayate | rayiṁ ca praṇaṁ
cetyetau me bahudhā prajāḥ kariṣyata iti || 4 ||

To him he replied:

“The Creator desirous of creatures performed penance.
Having performed penance
he created the pair, Food (Matter) and Prāṇa (Energy),
thinking that they together
would variously produce creatures for Him. ”

I - 5

आदित्यो ह वै प्राणो रयिरेव चन्द्रमा रयिर्वा एतत्
सर्वं यन्मूर्तं चामूर्तं च तस्मान्मूर्तिरेव रयिः ॥  ५ ॥

ādityo ha vai prāṇo rayireva candramā rayirvā etat
sarvaṁ yanmūrtaṁ cāmūrtaṁ ca tasmānmūrtireva rayiḥ || 5 ||

The Sun is Energy, and Matter indeed is the Moon;
or, Matter verily are all this,
- what is with form and what is formless;
so form is Matter.

I - 6

अथादित्य उदयन्यत्प्राचीं दिशं प्रविशति तेन प्राच्यान्
प्राणान् रश्मिषु सन्निधत्ते । यद्दक्षिणां यत् प्रतीचीं
यदुदीचीं
यदधो यदूर्ध्वं यदन्तरा दिशो यत् सर्वं प्रकाशयति
तेन सर्वान् प्राणान् रश्मिषु सन्निधत्ते ॥  ६ ॥

athāditya udayanyatprācīṁ diśaṁ praviśati tena prācyān
prāṇān raśmiṣu sannidhatte | yaddakṣiṇāṁ yat pratīcīṁ
yadudīcīṁ
yadadho yadūrdhvaṁ yadantarā diśo yat sarvaṁ prakāśayati
tena sarvān prāṇān raśmiṣu sannidhatte || 6 ||

Now, when the Sun having risen enters the East,
by that, He holds the eastern Prāṇas in His rays.
When He illumines the South, the West, the North,
the Zenith, the Nadir, the Intermediate quarters, and all, by that,
he holds all the Prāṇas in His rays.

I - 7

स एष वैश्वानरो विश्वरुपः प्राणोऽग्निरुदयते ।
तदेतदृचाऽभ्युक्तम् ॥  ७ ॥

sa eṣa vaiśvānaro viśvarupaḥ prāṇo'gnirudayate |
tadetadṛcā'bhyuktam || 7 ||

Thus rises He,
the Prāṇa of universal life and universal form, the fire.
It has been described by the following Ṛig:

I - 8

विश्वरूपं हरिणं जातवेदसं
परायणं ज्योतिरेकं तपन्तम् ।
सहस्ररश्मिः शतधा वर्तमानः
प्राणः प्रजानामुदयत्येष सूर्यः ॥  ८ ॥

viśvarūpaṁ hariṇaṁ jātavedasaṁ
parāyaṇaṁ jyotirekaṁ tapantam |
sahasraraśmiḥ śatadhā vartamānaḥ
prāṇaḥ prajānāmudayatyeṣa sūryaḥ || 8 ||

(The Wise know Him who is) of universal form,
full of rays, omniscient, the basis of all (life),
the one effulgent and (great) giver of heat.

There rises the Sun of thousand rays
who is manifold in existence and the life of all creatures.

I - 9

संवत्सरो वै प्रजापतिस्तस्यायने दक्षिणं चोत्तरं च ।
तद्ये ह वै तदिष्टापूर्ते कृतमित्युपासते ते चान्द्रमसमेव
लोकमभिजयन्ते । त एव पुनरावर्तन्ते तस्मादेत ऋषयः
प्रजाकामा दक्षिणं प्रतिपद्यन्ते । एष ह वै रयिर्यः
पितृयाणः ॥  ९ ॥

saṁvatsaro vai prajāpatistasyāyane dakṣiṇaṁ cottaraṁ ca |
tadye ha vai tadiṣṭāpūrte kṛtamityupāsate te cāndramasameva
lokamabhijayante | ta eva punarāvartante tasmādeta ṛṣayaḥ
prajākāmā dakṣiṇaṁ pratipadyante | eṣa ha vai rayiryaḥ
pitṛyāṇaḥ || 9 ||

The year is verily Prajāpati
and two are his paths, the Southern and the Northern;

now, those who perform the Iṣṭāpūrta (sacrifices and charitable works)
(thinking them) as works of supreme value,
attain the world of the Moon and afterwards return (there) again. 

Therefor those Ṛishis who desire offspring
go by the Southern (Path).
Matter verily is this path of the manes.

I - 10

अथोत्तरेण तपसा ब्रह्मचर्येण श्रद्धया
विद्ययाऽऽत्मानमन्विष्यादित्यमभिजयन्ते ।   एतद्वै
प्राणानामायतनमेतदमृतमभयमेतत् परायणमेतस्मान्न
पुनरावर्तन्त इत्येष निरोधस्तदेष श्लोकः ॥  १० ॥

athottareṇa tapasā brahmacaryeṇa śraddhayā
vidyayā''tmānamanviṣyādityamabhijayante | etadvai
prāṇānāmāyatanametadamṛtamabhayametat parāyaṇametasmānna
punarāvartanta ityeṣa nirodhastadeṣa ślokaḥ || 10 ||

But those who have sought the Ātman
by austerity, abstinence, faith and knowledge,
attain the Āditya by the Northern Path.
This is the source of all the forces,
this is the immortal and free from danger,
- this is the supreme resort.
From there they do not return, (for) it is the end.
There is the following Śloka on it:

I - 11

पञ्चपादं पितरं द्वादशाकृतिं
दिव आहुः परे अर्धे पुरीषिणम् ।
अथेमे अन्य उ परे विचक्षणं
सप्तचक्रे षडर आहुरर्पितमिति ॥  ११ ॥

pañcapādaṁ pitaraṁ dvādaśākṛtiṁ
diva āhuḥ pare ardhe purīṣiṇam |
atheme anya u pare vicakṣaṇaṁ
saptacakre ṣaḍara āhurarpitamiti || 11 ||

Some (sages) say that he is the father
with five feet and twelve forms,
giving rains from the upper part of the heaven;
others again say that the seer
is placed on (a chariot) of seven wheels and six spokes.

I - 12

मासो वै प्रजापतिस्तस्य कृष्णपक्ष एव रयिः
शुक्लः प्रणस्तस्मादेत ऋषयः शुक्ल इष्टं कुर्वन्तीतर
इतरस्मिन् ॥  १२ ॥

māso vai prajāpatistasya kṛṣṇapakṣa eva rayiḥ
śuklaḥ praṇastasmādeta ṛṣayaḥ śukla iṣṭaṁ kurvantītara
itarasmin || 12 ||

The Month is verily Prajāpati.
Its dark fortnight is Matter,
and its bright one is the Prāṇa.

therefore some Ṛishis
perform their sacrifices in the bright fortnight;
others in the other half.

I - 13

अहोरात्रो वै प्रजापतिस्तस्याहरेव प्राणो रात्रिरेव रयिः
प्राणं वा एते प्रस्कन्दन्ति ये दिवा रत्या संयुज्यन्ते
ब्रह्मचर्यमेव तद्यद्रात्रौ रत्या संयुज्यन्ते ॥  १३ ॥

ahorātro vai prajāpatistasyāhareva prāṇo rātrireva rayiḥ
prāṇaṁ vā ete praskandanti ye divā ratyā saṁyujyante
brahmacaryameva tadyadrātrau ratyā saṁyujyante || 13 ||

Day and Night are Prajāpati;
its day is Prāṇa (Energy) and night is Matter.

(So) those who unite in love by day, dissipate their Prāṇa,
but control indeed is that when they unite in love by night.

I - 14

अन्नं वै प्रजापतिस्ततो ह वै तद्रेतस्तस्मादिमाः प्रजाः
प्रजायन्त इति ॥  १४ ॥

annaṁ vai prajāpatistato ha vai tadretastasmādimāḥ prajāḥ
prajāyanta iti || 14 ||

Food is verily Prajāpati.
From that is produced the seed,
and from that again all these creatures are born.

I - 15

तद्ये ह वै तत् प्रजापतिव्रतं चरन्ति ते मिथुनमुत्पादयन्ते ।
तेषामेवैष ब्रह्मलोको येषां तपो ब्रह्मचर्यं येषु सत्यं
प्रतिष्टितम् ॥  १५ ॥

tadye ha vai tat prajāpativrataṁ caranti te mithunamutpādayante |
teṣāmevaiṣa brahmaloko yeṣāṁ tapo brahmacaryaṁ yeṣu satyaṁ
pratiṣṭitam || 15 ||

Therefore those who observe the rule of Prajāpati produce a pair.
For them verily is the Brahmaloka,
who have penance and abstinence and in whom truth abides.

I - 16

तेषामसौ विरजो ब्रह्मलोको न येषु जिह्ममनृतं न
माया चेति ॥  १६ ॥

teṣāmasau virajo brahmaloko na yeṣu jihmamanṛtaṁ na
māyā ceti || 16 ||

That pure world of Brahma belongs to them only
in whom rests not deceit, falsehood or guile.

इति प्रश्नोपनिषदि प्रथमः प्रश्नः ॥
iti praśnopaniṣadi prathamaḥ praśnaḥ ||

It was the first question of the Praśna Upanishad.

द्वितीयः प्रश्नः
dvitīyaḥ praśnaḥ

Second Question

II - 1

अथ हैनं भार्गवो वैदर्भिः पप्रच्छ । भगवन् कत्येव
देवाः प्रचां दिधारयन्ते कतर एतत् प्रकशयन्ते कः
पुनरेषां वरिष्ठ इति ॥  १ ॥

atha hainaṁ bhārgavo vaidarbhiḥ papraccha | bhagavan katyeva
devāḥ pracāṁ didhārayante katara etat prakaśayante kaḥ
punareṣāṁ variṣṭha iti || 1 ||

Next, the Bhārgava of Vidarbha asked him:

“Holy Sir, how many are the Gods who support the creatures?
How many (of them) manifest it?
And again, who is the greatest of them?”

II - 2

तस्मै स होवाचाकाशो ह वा एष देवो वायुरग्निरापः
पृथिवी वाङ्मनश्चक्षुः श्रोत्रं च । ते प्रकाश्याभिवदन्ति
वयमेतद्बाणमवष्टभ्य विधारयामः ॥  २ ॥

tasmai sa hovācākāśo ha vā eṣa devo vāyuragnirāpaḥ
pṛthivī vāṅmanaścakṣuḥ śrotraṁ ca | te prakāśyābhivadanti
vayametadbāṇamavaṣṭabhya vidhārayāmaḥ || 2 ||

To him he replied:

“The ether is that god, the air, fair, water, earth,
speech, mind, eye and ear.

These having manifested their power, vaunt and say:
“We (each of us) holding this body, support it.

II - 3

तान् वरिष्ठः प्राण उवाच । मा मोहमापद्यथ अहमेवैतत्
पञ्चधाऽऽत्मानं प्रविभज्यैतद्बाणमवष्टभ्य
विधारयामीति
तेऽश्रद्दधाना बभूवुः ॥  ३ ॥

tān variṣṭhaḥ prāṇa uvāca | mā mohamāpadyatha ahamevaitat
pañcadhā''tmānaṁ pravibhajyaitadbāṇamavaṣṭabhya
vidhārayāmīti
te'śraddadhānā babhūvuḥ || 3 ||

The chief Prāṇa then declared:

“Do not be deluded. I alone, dividing myself into five parts,
hold this body and support it.”

But they were incredulous.

II - 4

सोऽभिमानादूर्ध्वमुत्क्रामत इव तस्मिन्नुत्क्रामत्यथेतरे सर्व
एवोत्क्रामन्ते तस्मि/श्च प्रतिष्ठमाने सर्व एव प्रतिष्ठन्ते ।
तद्यथा मक्षिका मधुकरराजानमुत्क्रामन्तं सर्व एवोत्क्रमन्ते
तस्मि/ष्च प्रत्ष्ठमाने सर्व एव प्रतिष्टन्त एवम्
वाङ्मनष्चक्षुः
श्रोत्रं च ते प्रीताः प्राणं स्तुन्वन्ति ॥  ४ ॥

so'bhimānādūrdhvamutkrāmata iva tasminnutkrāmatyathetare sarva
evotkrāmante tasmi/śca pratiṣṭhamāne sarva eva pratiṣṭhante |
tadyathā makṣikā madhukararājānamutkrāmantaṁ sarva evotkramante
tasmi/ṣca pratṣṭhamāne sarva eva pratiṣṭanta evam
vāṅmanaṣcakṣuḥ
śrotraṁ ca te prītāḥ prāṇaṁ stunvanti || 4 ||

He from indignation appeared to go out upwards (from the body);
thereupon as he was about to go out,
all others seemed to go out
and he being established, all others were established.

Just as bees go out when their queen goes out,
and settle down when she settles down,
so did the speech, mind, eye, ears (etc.).

Being satisfied they praised the Prāṇa.

II - 5

एषोऽग्निस्तपत्येष सूर्य
एष पर्जन्यो मघवानेष वायुः
एष पृथिवी रयिर्देवः
सदसच्चामृतं च यत् ॥  ५ ॥

eṣo'gnistapatyeṣa sūrya
eṣa parjanyo maghavāneṣa vāyuḥ
eṣa pṛthivī rayirdevaḥ
sadasaccāmṛtaṁ ca yat || 5 ||

He burns as fire; he is the sun; he is the cloud,
he is Indra; he is the wind.
This bright one is (verily) earth, matter,
what is and what is not and also what is immortal.

II - 6

अरा इव रथनाभौ प्राणे सर्वं प्रतिष्ठितम् ।
ऋचो यजूँषि सामानि यज्ञः क्षत्रं ब्रह्म च ॥  ६ ॥

arā iva rathanābhau prāṇe sarvaṁ pratiṣṭhitam |
ṛco yajūɱṣi sāmāni yajñaḥ kṣatraṁ brahma ca || 6 ||

As spokes in the nave of the wheel,
all are fixed in the Prāṇa,
- Ṛigs, Yajus, Sāmas,
Sacrifice, Kṣattriyas and Brāhmaṇas.

II - 7

प्रजापतिश्चरसि गर्भे त्वमेव प्रतिजायसे ।
तुभ्यं प्राण प्रजास्त्विमा बलिं हरन्ति
यः प्रणैः प्रतितिष्ठसि ॥  ७ ॥

prajāpatiścarasi garbhe tvameva pratijāyase |
tubhyaṁ prāṇa prajāstvimā baliṁ haranti
yaḥ praṇaiḥ pratitiṣṭhasi || 7 ||

Verily as Prajāpati thou wanderest in the womb and art born again.
To Thee, O Prāṇa, these creatures carry their offerings
as Thou dwellest with the senses (in the body).

II - 8

देवानामसि वह्नितमः पितृणां प्रथमा स्वधा ।
ऋषीणां चरितं सत्यमथर्वाङ्गिरसामसि ॥  ८ ॥

devānāmasi vahnitamaḥ pitṛṇāṁ prathamā svadhā |
ṛṣīṇāṁ caritaṁ satyamatharvāṅgirasāmasi || 8 ||

Thou art the best carrier for gods
and the first offering to the manes.
Thou art the true effort of the Atharva Aṅgiras Ṛishis.

II - 9

इन्द्रस्त्वं प्राण तेजसा रुद्रोऽसि परिरक्षिता ।
त्वमन्तरिक्षे चरसि सूर्यस्त्वं ज्योतिषां पतिः ॥  ९ ॥

indrastvaṁ prāṇa tejasā rudro'si parirakṣitā |
tvamantarikṣe carasi sūryastvaṁ jyotiṣāṁ patiḥ || 9 ||

O Prāṇa, thou art Indra, and Rudra by prowess
and (also art Thou) the Protector.
Thou movest in the sky as the sun.
Thou art the lord of lights.

II - 10

यदा त्वमभिवर्षस्यथेमाः प्राण ते प्रजाः ।
आनन्दरूपास्तिष्ठन्ति कामायान्नं भविष्यतीति ॥  १० ॥

yadā tvamabhivarṣasyathemāḥ prāṇa te prajāḥ |
ānandarūpāstiṣṭhanti kāmāyānnaṁ bhaviṣyatīti || 10 ||

O Prāṇa, when thou pourest down rain,
these creatures of thine are delighted,
hoping that there will be food according to their desire.

II - 11

व्रात्यस्त्वं प्राणैकर्षरत्ता विश्वस्य सत्पतिः ।
वयमाद्यस्य दातारः पिता त्वं मातरिश्व नः ॥  ११ ॥

vrātyastvaṁ prāṇaikarṣarattā viśvasya satpatiḥ |
vayamādyasya dātāraḥ pitā tvaṁ mātariśva naḥ || 11 ||

Thou art a Vrātya, O Prāṇa,
and the Ekarishi fire that enjoys (the offerings).
Thou art the universal lord of existence.
We are the givers of Thy food. Thou art, O Wind, our father.

II - 12

या ते तनूर्वाचि प्रतिष्ठिता या श्रोत्रे या च चक्षुषि ।
या च मनसि सन्तता शिवां तां कुरू मोत्क्रमीः ॥  १२ ॥

yā te tanūrvāci pratiṣṭhitā yā śrotre yā ca cakṣuṣi |
yā ca manasi santatā śivāṁ tāṁ kurū motkramīḥ || 12 ||

Make propitious that body of thine
which exists in speech, in the ear, in the eye,
and also what pervades the mind;
don’t go away.

II - 13

प्राणस्येदं वशे सर्वं त्रिदिवे यत् प्रतिष्ठितम् ।
मातेव पुत्रान् रक्षस्व  श्रीश्च प्रज्ञां च विधेहि न इति ॥  १३ ॥

prāṇasyedaṁ vaśe sarvaṁ tridive yat pratiṣṭhitam |
māteva putrān rakṣasva śrīśca prajñāṁ ca vidhehi na iti || 13 ||

Whatever exists in the three worlds
is all under the control of Prāṇa.
(O Prāṇa) protect us as a mother (protects) her sons;
give us affluence and intelligence.

इति प्रश्नोपनिषदि द्वितीयः प्रश्नः ॥
iti praśnopaniṣadi dvitīyaḥ praśnaḥ ||

It was the second question of Praśna Upanishad.

तृतीयः प्रश्नः
tṛtīyaḥ praśnaḥ

Third Question

III - 1

अथ हैनं कौशल्यष्चाश्वलायनः पप्रच्छ । भगवन् कुत
एष प्राणो जायते कथमायात्यस्मिञ्शरीर आत्मानं  वा
प्रविभज्य कथं प्रतिष्ठते केनोत्क्रमते कथं बह्यमभिधते
कथमध्यात्ममिति ॥  १ ॥

atha hainaṁ kauśalyaṣcāśvalāyanaḥ papraccha | bhagavan kuta
eṣa prāṇo jāyate kathamāyātyasmiñśarīra ātmānaṁ vā
pravibhajya kathaṁ pratiṣṭhate kenotkramate kathaṁ bahyamabhidhate
kathamadhyātmamiti || 1 ||

Then Aśvalāyana Kauśalya asked him:

“Sir, whence is this Prāṇa born?

How does he come into this body,
and how does he exist (there)
having divided himself (into five parts)?

By what means does he go out?
How does he hold the outside (world) and how the internal?

III - 2

तस्मै स होउवाचातिप्रष्चान् पृच्छसि ब्रह्मिष्ठोऽसीति
तस्मात्तेऽहं ब्रवीमि ॥ २ ॥

tasmai sa houvācātipraṣcān pṛcchasi brahmiṣṭho'sīti
tasmātte'haṁ bravīmi || 2 ||

To him he said:

“Thou art asking more difficult questions. 
Thou art the greatest devotee of Brahman,
so shall I tell it to thee.

III - 3

आत्मन एष प्राणो जायते । यथैषा पुरुषे
छायैतस्मिन्नेतदाततं
मनोकृतेनायात्यस्मिञ्शरीरे ॥ ३ ॥

ātmana eṣa prāṇo jāyate | yathaiṣā puruṣe
chāyaitasminnetadātataṁ
manokṛtenāyātyasmiñśarīre || 3 ||

Of the Ātman is born this Prāṇa.
Like the shadow on a man, it is spread out on That.
It comes into the body by the acts of the mind.

III - 4

यथा सम्रादेवाधिकृतान् विनियुङ्क्ते । एतन् ग्रामानोतान्
ग्रामानधितिष्टस्वेत्येवमेवैष प्राण इतरान् प्राणान् पृथक्
पृथगेव सन्निधत्ते ॥४॥

yathā samrādevādhikṛtān viniyuṅkte | etan grāmānotān
grāmānadhitiṣṭasvetyevamevaiṣa prāṇa itarān prāṇān pṛthak
pṛthageva sannidhatte || 4 ||

As an Emperor orders his officials, saying
“Do you reside in and rule these villages and those”,

so does this (the chief Prāṇa),
engage the other Prāṇas differently (in their different functions).

III - 5

पायूपस्थेऽपानं चक्षुःश्रोत्रे मुखनासिकाभ्यां प्राणः
स्वयं
प्रातिष्टते मध्ये तु समानः । एष ह्येतद्धुतमन्नं समं
नयति
तस्मादेताः सप्तार्चिषो भवन्ति ॥  ५ ॥

pāyūpasthe'pānaṁ cakṣuḥśrotre mukhanāsikābhyāṁ prāṇaḥ
svayaṁ
prātiṣṭate madhye tu samānaḥ | eṣa hyetaddhutamannaṁ samaṁ
nayati
tasmādetāḥ saptārciṣo bhavanti || 5 ||

The Apāna is in the organs of excretion and generation;

in the eye and the ear
as well as in the mouth and the nose,
dwells himself the Prāṇa;

and in the middle is Samāna,
as it distributes the offered food equally to all parts.
From it originate the seven flames.

III - 6

हृदि ह्येष आत्मा । अत्रैतदेकशतं नाडीनं तासां शतं
शतमेकैकस्या द्वासप्ततिर्द्वासप्ततिः
प्रतिशाखानाडीसहस्राणि
भवन्त्यासु व्यानश्चरति ॥  ६ ॥

hṛdi hyeṣa ātmā | atraitadekaśataṁ nāḍīnaṁ tāsāṁ śataṁ
śatamekaikasyā dvāsaptatirdvāsaptatiḥ
pratiśākhānāḍīsahasrāṇi
bhavantyāsu vyānaścarati || 6 ||

In the heart dwells the Ātman.

There are (in the heart) a hundred and one nerves,
in each of them there are a hundred,
and each of these branch nerves again
has seventy-two thousand nerves.
In all these the Vyāna moves.

III - 7

अथैकयोर्ध्व उदानः पुण्येन पुण्यं लोकं नयति पापेन
पापमुभाभ्यामेव मनुष्यलोकम् ॥  ७ ॥

athaikayordhva udānaḥ puṇyena puṇyaṁ lokaṁ nayati pāpena
pāpamubhābhyāmeva manuṣyalokam || 7 ||

And then, through one of them the Udāna
carries (the Soul) to the virtuous world by virtuous deeds,
to the sinful world by the sinful acts,
and by both to the world of men.

III - 8

आदित्यो ह वै बाह्यः प्राण उदयत्येष ह्येनं चाक्षुषं
प्राणमनुगृह्णानः । पृथिव्यां या देवता सैषा पुरुषस्य
अपानमवष्टभ्यान्तरा यदाकाशः स समानो वायुर्व्यानः ॥  ८ ॥

ādityo ha vai bāhyaḥ prāṇa udayatyeṣa hyenaṁ cākṣuṣaṁ
prāṇamanugṛhṇānaḥ | pṛthivyāṁ yā devatā saiṣā puruṣasya
apānamavaṣṭabhyāntarā yadākāśaḥ sa samāno vāyurvyānaḥ || 8 ||

The sun is verily the external Prāṇa,
- for he rises having graced the Prāṇa in the eye.
The god which is in the earth controls the Apāna of man.
The ether which is in the interspace is the Samāna;
and the air is Vyāna.

III - 9

तेजो ह वा उदानस्तस्मादुपशान्ततेजाः ।
पुनर्भवमिन्द्रियैर्मनसि सम्पध्यमानैः ॥  ९ ॥

tejo ha vā udānastasmādupaśāntatejāḥ |
punarbhavamindriyairmanasi sampadhyamānaiḥ || 9 ||

The Fire is verily the Udāna,
for they in whom the fire was extinguished,
go for rebirth with their senses absorbed in the mind.

III - 10

यच्चित्तस्तेनैष प्राणमायाति । प्राणस्तेजसा युक्तः सहात्मना तथासङ्कल्पितं लोकं नयति ॥  १० ॥

yaccittastenaiṣa prāṇamāyāti | prāṇastejasā yuktaḥ sahātmanā
tathāsaṅkalpitaṁ lokaṁ nayati || 10 ||

Whatever his thought (at the dying moment),
with that he comes to the Prāṇa;
the Prāṇa united with the Fire leads on
with the Ātman to the desired world.

III - 11

य एवं विद्वान् प्राणं वेद न हास्य प्रजा हीयतेऽमृतो
भवति तदेषः श्लोकः ॥  ११ ॥

ya evaṁ vidvān prāṇaṁ veda na hāsya prajā hīyate'mṛto
bhavati tadeṣaḥ ślokaḥ || 11 ||

The progeny of the learned, who knows the Prāṇa as such,
never perishes; he becomes immortal.

Here is the Śloka (about it):

III - 12

उत्पत्तिमायतिं स्थानं विभुत्वं चैव पञ्चधा ।
अध्यात्मं चैव प्राणस्य विज्ञायामृतमश्नुते
विज्ञायामृतमश्नुत इति ॥  १२ ॥

utpattimāyatiṁ sthānaṁ vibhutvaṁ caiva pañcadhā |
adhyātmaṁ caiva prāṇasya vijñāyāmṛtamaśnute
vijñāyāmṛtamaśnuta iti || 12 ||

(The wise) attains the immortal
having known the origin of the Prāṇa,
its advent, place, all-pervasiveness,
its fivefold distribution, and its internal aspect,
- yea, (he) attains the immortal.

इति प्रश्नोपनिषदि तृतीयः प्रश्नः ॥
iti praśnopaniṣadi tṛtīyaḥ praśnaḥ ||

It was the Third Question of the Praśna Upanishad.

चतुर्थः प्रश्नः
caturthaḥ praśnaḥ

Fourth Question

IV - 1

अथ हैनं सौर्यायणि गार्ग्यः पप्रच्छ । भगवन्नेतस्मिन्
पुरुषे कानि स्वपन्ति कान्यस्मिञ्जाग्रति कतर एष देवः
स्वप्नान् पश्यति कस्यैतत्  सुखं भवति कस्मिन्नु सर्वे
सम्प्रतिष्टिता भवन्तीति ॥  १ ॥

atha hainaṁ sauryāyaṇi gārgyaḥ papraccha | bhagavannetasmin
puruṣe kāni svapanti kānyasmiñjāgrati katara eṣa devaḥ
svapnān paśyati kasyaitat sukhaṁ bhavati kasminnu sarve
sampratiṣṭitā bhavantīti || 1 ||

Then Gārgya Sauryāyani asked him:

“Sir, what are they that sleep in man?
And what again are awake in him?
Of these, which god sees dreams?
Whose is the happiness?
On what again are all established?

IV - 2

तस्मै स होवच । यथ गार्ग्य मरीचयोऽर्कस्यास्तं
गच्छतः सर्वा एतस्मिंस्तेजोमण्डल एकीभवन्ति । ताः पुनः
पुनरुदयतः प्रचरन्त्येवं ह वै तत् सर्वं परे देवे
मनस्येकीभवति
तेन तर्ह्येष पुरुषो न शृणोति न पश्यति न
जिघ्रति न रसयते न स्पृशते नाभिवदते नादत्ते नानन्दयते
न विसृजते नेयायते स्वपितीत्याचक्षते ॥  २ ॥

tasmai sa hovaca | yatha gārgya marīcayo'rkasyāstaṁ
gacchataḥ sarvā etasmiṁstejomaṇḍala ekībhavanti | tāḥ punaḥ
punarudayataḥ pracarantyevaṁ ha vai tat sarvaṁ pare deve
manasyekībhavati
tena tarhyeṣa puruṣo na śṛṇoti na paśyati na
jighrati na rasayate na spṛśate nābhivadate nādatte nānandayate
na visṛjate neyāyate svapitītyācakṣate || 2 ||

To him he said:

“As the rays of the setting sun, O Gārgya,
become united in the orb of light,
and while rising they again go out,
so (in sleep) all become one in the superior god, the mind;
hence the men hears not, sees not, smells not,
tastes not, feels not, speaks not,
enjoys not, evacuates not, moves not,
- and they say “(he) sleeps.””

IV - 3

प्राणाग्रय एवैतस्मिन् पुरे जाग्रति । गार्हपत्यो ह
वा एषोऽपानो व्यानोऽन्वाहार्यपचनो यद्गार्हपत्यात् प्रणीयते
प्रणयनादाहवनीयः प्राणः ॥  ३ ॥

prāṇāgraya evaitasmin pure jāgrati | gārhapatyo ha
vā eṣo'pāno vyāno'nvāhāryapacano yadgārhapatyāt praṇīyate
praṇayanādāhavanīyaḥ prāṇaḥ || 3 ||

The fires of Prāṇa alone remain awake in this city:

This Apāna is the Gārhapatya fire,
the Vyāna is the Anvāhāryapacana,
and the Prāṇa is the Āhavanīya fire
since it is taken from the Gārhapatya fire.

IV - 4

यदुच्छ्वासनिःश्वासावेतावाहुती समं नयतीति स  समानः ।
मनो ह वाव यजमानः । इष्टफलमेवोदानः । स
एनं यजमानमहरहर्ब्रह्म गमयति ॥  ४ ॥

yaducchvāsaniḥśvāsāvetāvāhutī samaṁ nayatīti sa samānaḥ |
mano ha vāva yajamānaḥ | iṣṭaphalamevodānaḥ | sa
enaṁ yajamānamaharaharbrahma gamayati || 4 ||

As it carries the two oblations
of inspiration and expiration equally (into the system),
the Samāna is (the Hotri); the mind is verily the sacrificer
and the Udāna is the fruit of the sacrifice
(inasmuch as) it takes the sacrificer every day to Brahman.

IV - 5

अत्रैष देवः स्वप्ने महिमानमनुभवति । यद्दृष्टं
दृष्टमनुपश्यति
श्रुतं श्रुतमेवार्थमनुशृणोति देशदिगन्तरैश्च
प्रत्यनुभूतं
पुनः पुनः प्रत्यनुभवति दृष्टं चादृष्टं च श्रुतं
चाश्रुतं
चानुभूतं चाननुभूतं च स्च्चासच्च सर्वं पश्यति सर्वः
पस्यति ॥  ५ ॥

atraiṣa devaḥ svapne mahimānamanubhavati | yaddṛṣṭaṁ
dṛṣṭamanupaśyati
śrutaṁ śrutamevārthamanuśṛṇoti deśadigantaraiśca
pratyanubhūtaṁ
punaḥ punaḥ pratyanubhavati dṛṣṭaṁ cādṛṣṭaṁ ca śrutaṁ
cāśrutaṁ
cānubhūtaṁ cānanubhūtaṁ ca sccāsacca sarvaṁ paśyati sarvaḥ
pasyati || 5 ||

Here, in this state, the god enjoys its power in dream,

- it sees again whatever has been seen before,
hears whatever has been heard before,
enjoys again what have been enjoyed in different places and quarters.
Becoming all, it sees all that have been seen and unseen,
heard and unheard, perceived and unperceived, real and unreal.

IV - 6

स यदा तेजसाऽभिभूतो भवति । अत्रैष देवः स्वप्नान्न
पश्यत्यथ यदैतस्मिञ्शरीर एतत्सुखं भवति ॥  ६ ॥

sa yadā tejasā'bhibhūto bhavati | atraiṣa devaḥ svapnānna
paśyatyatha yadaitasmiñśarīra etatsukhaṁ bhavati || 6 ||

When it (the mind) is overcome by the power,
the god (Jīva) sees not the dream,
- then in the body the bliss is enjoyed.

IV - 7

स यथा सोभ्य वयांसि वसोवृक्षं संप्रतिष्ठन्ते । एवं
ह वै तत् सर्वं पर आत्मनि संप्रतिष्ठते ॥  ७ ॥

sa yathā sobhya vayāṁsi vasovṛkṣaṁ saṁpratiṣṭhante | evaṁ
ha vai tat sarvaṁ para ātmani saṁpratiṣṭhate || 7 ||

As birds, my young friend, go to the tree to roost,
so all those rest in the superior Ātman.

IV - 8

पृथिवी च पृथिवीमात्रा चापश्चापोमात्रा च तेजश्च
तेजोमात्रा च वायुश्च वायुमात्रा चाकाशश्चाकाशमात्रा
च चक्षुश्च द्रष्टव्यं च श्रोत्रं च श्रोतव्यं च ग्राणं च
घ्रातव्यं च रसश्च रसयितव्यं च त्वक्च स्पर्शयितव्यं च
वाक्च वक्तव्यं च हस्तौ चादातव्यं चोपस्थश्चानन्दयितव्यं
च पायुश्च विसर्जयितव्यं च यादौ च गन्तव्यं च मनश्च
मन्तव्यं च बुद्धिश्च बोद्धिव्यं चाहङ्कारश्चाहङ्कर्तव्यं च
चित्तं च चेतयितव्यं च तेजश्च विद्योतयितव्यं च प्राणश्च
विद्यारयितव्यं च ॥  ८ ॥

pṛthivī ca pṛthivīmātrā cāpaścāpomātrā ca tejaśca
tejomātrā ca vāyuśca vāyumātrā cākāśaścākāśamātrā
ca cakṣuśca draṣṭavyaṁ ca śrotraṁ ca śrotavyaṁ ca grāṇaṁ ca
ghrātavyaṁ ca rasaśca rasayitavyaṁ ca tvakca sparśayitavyaṁ ca
vākca vaktavyaṁ ca hastau cādātavyaṁ copasthaścānandayitavyaṁ
ca pāyuśca visarjayitavyaṁ ca yādau ca gantavyaṁ ca manaśca
mantavyaṁ ca buddhiśca boddhivyaṁ cāhaṅkāraścāhaṅkartavyaṁ ca
cittaṁ ca cetayitavyaṁ ca tejaśca vidyotayitavyaṁ ca prāṇaśca
vidyārayitavyaṁ ca || 8 ||

Earth and its subtle element, Water and its subtle element,
Light and its subtle element, Air and its subtle element,
Ether and its subtle element,

the eyes and what can be seen, the smell and what can be smelt,
the taste and what can be tasted, the touch and what can be touched,
the organ of speech and what can be spoken,

the hands and what can be taken,
the organ of generation and its object of enjoyment,
the organ of excretion and what can be excreted,
the feet and what can be walked upon,
the mind and what can be thought of,
the intellect and what can be comprehended,
the ego and the object of egoism, the memory and its object,

the light and what can be lighted up,
the Prāṇa and what is to be sustained

(- all these rest in the superior Ātman in sleep).

IV - 9

एष हि द्रष्ट स्प्रष्टा श्रोता घ्राता रसयिता मन्ता
बोद्धा कर्ता विज्ञानात्मा पुरुषः । स परेऽक्षर आत्मनि
संप्रतिष्ठते ॥  ९ ॥

eṣa hi draṣṭa spraṣṭā śrotā ghrātā rasayitā mantā
boddhā kartā vijñānātmā puruṣaḥ | sa pare'kṣara ātmani
saṁpratiṣṭhate || 9 ||

It is he who sees, feels, hears, smells, tastes, thinks, knows;
he is the doer, the intelligent soul, the Puruṣa.
He is established in the supreme immutable Ātman.

IV - 10

परमेवाक्षरं प्रतिपद्यते स यो ह वै
तदच्छायमशरीरम्लोहितं
शुभ्रमक्षरं वेदयते यस्तु सोम्य । स सर्वज्ञः सर्वो भवति ।
तदेष श्लोकः ॥  १० ॥

paramevākṣaraṁ pratipadyate sa yo ha vai
tadacchāyamaśarīramlohitaṁ
śubhramakṣaraṁ vedayate yastu somya | sa sarvajñaḥ sarvo bhavati |
tadeṣa ślokaḥ || 10 ||

The Supreme Undecaying One, my young friend,
he verily attains, who knows the indestructible,
the pure, without shadow, colour or body.
He becomes all and omniscient.

There is the following verse about it:

IV - 11

विज्ञानात्मा सह देवैश्च सर्वैः
प्राणा भुतानि संप्रतिष्ठन्ति यत्र
तदक्षरं वेदयते यस्तु सोम्य
स सर्वज्ञः सर्वमेवाविवेशेति ॥  ११ ॥

vijñānātmā saha devaiśca sarvaiḥ
prāṇā bhutāni saṁpratiṣṭhanti yatra
tadakṣaraṁ vedayate yastu somya
sa sarvajñaḥ sarvamevāviveśeti || 11 ||

My young friend, he who knows that Imperishable
in which rest the mind, the senses and the Prāṇas,
verily becomes omniscient and enters into all.

इति प्रश्नोपनिषदि चतुर्थः प्रश्नः ॥
iti praśnopaniṣadi caturthaḥ praśnaḥ ||

It was the Fourth Question of the Praśna Upanishad.

पञ्चमः प्रश्नः
pañcamaḥ praśnaḥ

Fifth Question

V - 1

अथ हैनं सैब्यः सत्यकामः पप्रच्छ । स यो ह
वै तभ्दगवन्मनुष्येषु प्रायणान्तमोङ्कारमभिध्यायीत ।
कतमं
वाव स तेन लोकं जयतीति । तस्मै स होवाच ॥  १ ॥

atha hainaṁ saibyaḥ satyakāmaḥ papraccha | sa yo ha
vai tabhdagavanmanuṣyeṣu prāyaṇāntamoṅkāramabhidhyāyīta |
katamaṁ
vāva sa tena lokaṁ jayatīti | tasmai sa hovāca || 1 ||

Then Satyakāma, the son of Śibi, asked him:

“Venerable Sir, among men
what world does he attain by that,
who meditates upon OM until death?”

 – To him he replied:

V - 2

एतद्वै सत्यकाम परं चापरं च ब्रह्म यदोङ्कारः ।
तस्माद्विद्वानेतेनैवायतनेनैकतरमन्वेति ॥  २ ॥

etadvai satyakāma paraṁ cāparaṁ ca brahma yadoṅkāraḥ |
tasmādvidvānetenaivāyatanenaikataramanveti || 2 ||

What is OM, O Satyakāma,
is verily the higher and the lower Brahman.
Therefore the knower attains either of the two by this means.

V - 3

स यध्येकमात्रमभिध्यायीत स तेनैव संवेदितस्तूर्णमेव
जगत्याभिसंपध्यते । तमृचो मनुष्यलोकमुपनयन्ते स तत्र
तपसा ब्रह्मचर्येण श्रद्धया संपन्नो महिमानमनुभवति ॥  ३ ॥

sa yadhyekamātramabhidhyāyīta sa tenaiva saṁveditastūrṇameva
jagatyābhisaṁpadhyate | tamṛco manuṣyalokamupanayante sa tatra
tapasā brahmacaryeṇa śraddhayā saṁpanno mahimānamanubhavati || 3 ||

If he meditates upon the one syllable,
he comes back to this world very soon (after his death)
being enlightened by that.

The Ṛigs take him to the world of man,
where he attains the greatness (in life)
being endowed with austerity, continence and faith.

V - 4

अथ यदि द्विमात्रेण मनसि संपध्यते सोऽन्तरिक्षं
यजुर्भिरुन्नीयते सोमलोकम् । स सोमलोके विभुतिमनुभूय
पुनरावर्तते ॥  ४ ॥

atha yadi dvimātreṇa manasi saṁpadhyate so'ntarikṣaṁ
yajurbhirunnīyate somalokam | sa somaloke vibhutimanubhūya
punarāvartate || 4 ||

If again, one meditates upon the two syllables,
one is united with the mind (after death).
He is taken to the world of the Moon,
having enjoyed its grandeur, comes back again (into this world).

V - 5

यः पुनरेतं त्रिमात्रेणोमित्येतेनैवाक्षरेण परं पुरुषमभि-
ध्यायीत स तेजसि सूर्ये संपन्नः । यथा पादोदरस्त्वचा
विनिर्भुच्यत एवं ह वै स पाप्मना विनिर्भुक्तः स
सामभिरुन्नीयते ब्रह्मलोकं स एतस्माज्जीवघनात् परात्परं
पुरुशयं पुरुषमीक्षते । तदेतौ श्लोकौ भवतः ॥  ५ ॥

yaḥ punaretaṁ trimātreṇomityetenaivākṣareṇa paraṁ puruṣamabhi
dhyāyīta sa tejasi sūrye saṁpannaḥ | yathā pādodarastvacā
vinirbhucyata evaṁ ha vai sa pāpmanā vinirbhuktaḥ sa
sāmabhirunnīyate brahmalokaṁ sa etasmājjīvaghanāt parātparaṁ
puruśayaṁ puruṣamīkṣate | tadetau ślokau bhavataḥ || 5 ||

Again, he who meditates
upon the supreme Puruṣa
by AUM as constituted of three syllables,
becomes united with the effulgent sun.

He is freed from all sins, even as a snake is freed from its slough.
He is taken up to the world of Brahma by the Sāma hymns.

From that macrocosmic self he beholds
the supreme Puruṣa residing in the heart.

There are the two following verses about it:

V - 6

तिस्रो मात्रा मृअत्युमत्यः प्रयुक्ता
अन्योन्यसक्ताः अनविप्रयुक्ताः ।
क्रियासु बाह्याभ्यन्तरमध्यमासु
सम्यक् प्रयुक्तासु न कम्पते ज्ञः ॥  ६ ॥

tisro mātrā mṛatyumatyaḥ prayuktā
anyonyasaktāḥ anaviprayuktāḥ |
kriyāsu bāhyābhyantaramadhyamāsu
samyak prayuktāsu na kampate jñaḥ || 6 ||

The Three Mātras when employed separately are mortal;
but (when they are) connected with one another,
they are not wrongly employed.

(When they are) properly employed,
in all the internal, external and middle functions,
the knower trembles not.

V - 7

ऋग्भिरेतं यजुर्भिरन्तरिक्षं
सामभिर्यत् तत् कवयो वेदयन्ते ।
तमोङ्कारेणैवायतनेनान्वेति विद्वान्
यत्तच्छान्तमजरममृतमभयं परं चेति ॥  ७ ॥

ṛgbhiretaṁ yajurbhirantarikṣaṁ
sāmabhiryat tat kavayo vedayante |
tamoṅkāreṇaivāyatanenānveti vidvān
yattacchāntamajaramamṛtamabhayaṁ paraṁ ceti || 7 ||

By the Ṛig hymns this world is attained,
by Yajus the sky (the world of the Moon)
and by the Sāma is attained that
which is known to the wise only.

What is peaceful, undecaying, immortal,
free from all fear, and supreme,
the sage also attains by means of this AUṀ.

इति प्रश्नोपनिषदि पञ्चमः प्रश्नः ॥
iti praśnopaniṣadi pañcamaḥ praśnaḥ ||

It was the Fifth Question of the Praśna Upanishad.

षष्ठः प्रश्नः
ṣaṣṭhaḥ praśnaḥ

Sixth Question

VI - 1

अथ हैनं सुकेशा भारद्वाजः पप्रच्छ । भगवन्
हिरण्यनाभः
कौसल्यो राजपुत्रो मामुपेत्यैतं प्रश्नमपृच्छत । षोडशकलं
भारद्वाज पुरुषं वेत्थ । तमहं कुमारम्ब्रुवं नाहमिमं
वेद ।
यध्यहमिममवेदिषं कथं ते नावक्ष्यमिति । समूलो वा
एष परिशुष्यति योऽनृतमभिवदति तस्मान्नार्हम्यनृतं वक्तुम् ।
स तूष्णीं रथमारुह्य प्रवव्राज । तं त्वा पृच्छामि क्वासौ
पुरुष इति ॥  १ ॥

atha hainaṁ sukeśā bhāradvājaḥ papraccha | bhagavan
hiraṇyanābhaḥ
kausalyo rājaputro māmupetyaitaṁ praśnamapṛcchata | ṣoḍaśakalaṁ
bhāradvāja puruṣaṁ vettha | tamahaṁ kumārambruvaṁ nāhamimaṁ
veda |
yadhyahamimamavediṣaṁ kathaṁ te nāvakṣyamiti | samūlo vā
eṣa pariśuṣyati yo'nṛtamabhivadati tasmānnārhamyanṛtaṁ vaktum |
sa tūṣṇīṁ rathamāruhya pravavrāja | taṁ tvā pṛcchāmi kvāsau
puruṣa iti || 1 ||

Next, Bharadvāja Sukeśa asked him:

“Venerable Sir, Hiraṇyanābha, the prince of Kośala,
came to me and asked me the question:

“Well, Bharadvāja, do you know the Puruṣa who is of sixteen parts?”

I replied to the Prince: “I do not know him;
had I known him, why should I not tell it to thee?
He who tells lies perishes root and all,
so it behoves me not to tell lies.”

He got into his chariot and went away.

So I ask thee where is that Puruṣa?

VI - 2

तस्मै स होवाच । इहैइवान्तःशरीरे सोभ्य स पुरुषो
यस्मिन्नताः षोडशकलाः प्रभवन्तीति ॥  २ ॥

tasmai sa hovāca | ihaiivāntaḥśarīre sobhya sa puruṣo
yasminnatāḥ ṣoḍaśakalāḥ prabhavantīti || 2 ||

To him he said:

“Here, within this body, my friend,
exists that Puruṣa,
from which arise the sixteen parts.”

VI - 3

स ईक्षाचक्रे । कस्मिन्नहमुत्क्रान्त उत्क्रान्तो भविष्यामि
कस्मिन्वा प्रतिष्टिते प्रतिष्टस्यामीति ॥  ३ ॥

sa īkṣācakre | kasminnahamutkrānta utkrānto bhaviṣyāmi
kasminvā pratiṣṭite pratiṣṭasyāmīti || 3 ||

He reflected:

By whose going out shall I go out,
and by whose stay again shall I stay (in this body).

VI - 4

स प्राणमसृजत प्राणाच्छ्रद्धां खं वायुर्ज्योतिरापः
पृथिवीन्द्रियं मनः । अन्नमन्नाद्वीर्यं तपो मन्त्राः कर्म
लोका
लोकेषु च नाम च ॥  ४ ॥

sa prāṇamasṛjata prāṇācchraddhāṁ khaṁ vāyurjyotirāpaḥ
pṛthivīndriyaṁ manaḥ | annamannādvīryaṁ tapo mantrāḥ karma
lokā
lokeṣu ca nāma ca || 4 ||

He created the Prāṇa,

from the Prāṇa came out faith,
ether, air, fire, water, earth,
the senses, the mind and food.
From food came vigour, penance,
the Vedas, the yajñas, the worlds.

In the worlds again was created the name.

VI - 5

स यथेमा नध्यः स्यन्दमानाः समुद्रायणाः समुद्रं
प्राप्यास्तं
गच्छन्ति भिध्येते तासां नामरुपे समुद्र इत्येवं प्रोच्यते ।
एवमेवास्य परिद्रष्टुरिमाः षोडशकलाः पुरुषायणाः
पुरुषं
प्राप्यास्तं गच्छन्ति भिध्येते चासां नामरुपे पुरुष इत्येवं
प्रोच्यते स एषोऽकलोऽमृतो भवति तदेष श्लोकः ॥  ५ ॥

sa yathemā nadhyaḥ syandamānāḥ samudrāyaṇāḥ samudraṁ
prāpyāstaṁ
gacchanti bhidhyete tāsāṁ nāmarupe samudra ityevaṁ procyate |
evamevāsya paridraṣṭurimāḥ ṣoḍaśakalāḥ puruṣāyaṇāḥ
puruṣaṁ
prāpyāstaṁ gacchanti bhidhyete cāsāṁ nāmarupe puruṣa ityevaṁ
procyate sa eṣo'kalo'mṛto bhavati tadeṣa ślokaḥ || 5 ||

As the flowing rivers that tend towards the sea,
having reached it, merge into the ocean,
all their names and forms disappear
and people speak only of the ocean,

so the sixteen kalās of this seer, the Puruṣa,
resting in him alone,
having reached Him disappear in Him,
their names and forms are destroyed
and people speak of the Puruṣa only.

Then he becomes devoid of kalās and immortal.

There is the following verse about it:

VI - 6

अरा इव रथनाभौ कला यस्मिन्प्रतिष्टिताः ।
तं वेध्यं पुरुषं वेद यथ मा वो मृत्युः परिव्यथा इति ॥  ६ ॥

arā iva rathanābhau kalā yasminpratiṣṭitāḥ |
taṁ vedhyaṁ puruṣaṁ veda yatha mā vo mṛtyuḥ parivyathā iti || 6 ||

In whom rest the kalās like spokes in the nave,
know him, the Purusha, worthy to be known,
that death might not hurt ye.

VI - 7

तान् होवाचैतावदेवाहमेतत् परं ब्रह्म वेद । नातः
परमस्तीति ॥  ७ ॥

tān hovācaitāvadevāhametat paraṁ brahma veda | nātaḥ
paramastīti || 7 ||

To them he said:

“So far I know of the Supreme Brahman,
there is nothing higher than that.”

VI - 8

ते तमर्चयन्तस्त्वं हि नः पिता योऽस्माकमविध्यायाः
परं परं तारयसीति । नमः परमऋषिभ्यो नमः
परमऋषिभ्यः ॥  ८ ॥

te tamarcayantastvaṁ hi naḥ pitā yo'smākamavidhyāyāḥ
paraṁ paraṁ tārayasīti | namaḥ paramaṛṣibhyo namaḥ
paramaṛṣibhyaḥ || 8 ||

Having worshipped him they said:

“Thou art our father that hast taken us
across to the other shore of the avidyā (ignorance).”

इति प्रश्नोपनिषदि षष्ठः प्रश्नः ॥
iti praśnopaniṣadi ṣaṣṭhaḥ praśnaḥ ||

It was the Sixth Question of the Praśna Upanishad.

ॐ भद्रं कर्णेभिः शृणुयाम देवाः ।
भद्रं पश्येमाक्षभिर्यजत्राः ।
स्थिरैरङ्गैस्तुष्टुवागँसस्तनूभिः ।
व्यशेम देवहितं यदायूः ।

auṁ bhadraṁ karṇebhiḥ śṛṇuyāma devāḥ |
bhadraṁ paśyemākṣabhiryajatrāḥ |
sthirairaṅgaistuṣṭuvāgaɱsastanūbhiḥ |
vyaśema devahitaṁ yadāyūḥ |

Om, May we Hear with our Ears what is Auspicious, O Devas,
May we See with our Eyes what is Auspicious, O Yajatrā,
May we Live with Contentment with Strong Body and Limbs.
May we Praise the God and sing His Glories
during our Lifespan Allotted to us by the Devas,

स्वस्ति न इन्द्रो वृद्धश्रवाः ।
स्वस्ति नः पूषा विश्ववेदाः ।
स्वस्ति नस्ताक्षर्यो अरिष्टनेमिः ।
स्वस्ति नो वृहस्पतिर्दधातु ॥
ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥

svasti na indro vṛddhaśravāḥ |
svasti naḥ pūṣā viśvavedāḥ |
svasti nastākṣaryo ariṣṭanemiḥ |
svasti no vṛhaspatirdadhātu ||

May Lord Indra of Great Fame increase our Well-Being and Prosperity,
May Lord Pusha, who is All-Knowing, bless us with Well-Being and Prosperity,
May Lord Garuda, who is the Protector, bless us with Well-Being and Prosperity,
May Lord Brihaspati also Bless us with Well-Being and Prosperity,

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ..
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ..

Om Peace! Peace! Peace!