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Śvetāśvatara Upanishad

Śvetāśvatara Upanishad

Śvetāśvatara Upanishad

.. श्वेताश्वतरोपनिषत् ..
.. śvetāśvataropaniṣat ..

The Śvetāśvatara Upanishad, which belongs to the Taittirīya or Black Yajur Veda, may be regarded as one of the authoritative Upanishads which form the source of the Vedanta philosophy. Its verses are quoted profusely in all Vedāntic treatises. The name seems to have been derived from the sage Śvetāśvatara, who, as we read at the end of the last chapter, imparted the Upanishad to a company of world-renouncing hermits.

That the Śvetāśvatara ranks high among the Upanishads may be inferred from the fact that the non-dualist Śankarāchārya, the qualified non-dualist Rāmānujācārya, and the teachers of many other schools of Hindu philosophy have quoted from it to support their respective views.

The Upanishad contains passages which can be interpreted to support dualism, qualified non-dualism, non-dualism, and even other systems of thought. Certain verses can be related to the Sāṁkhya philosophy of Kapila.


Chapter I , verse ...    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Chapter II , verse ...   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Chapter III , verse ...  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Chapter IV , verse ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Chapter V , verse ...  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Chapter VI , verse ... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23


Invocation

ॐ सहनाववतु .
सह नौ भुनक्तु .
सह वीर्यं करवावहै .
तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु . मा विद्विषावहै ..

auṁ sahanāvavatu  
saha nau bhunaktu .
saha vīryaṁ karavāvahai .
tejasvi nāvadhītamastu  mā vidviṣāvahai ..

Om. May Brahman protect us both!
May Brahman bestow upon us both the fruit of Knowledge!
May we both obtain the energy to acquire Knowledge!
May what we both study reveal the Truth!
May we cherish no ill feeling toward each other!

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ..
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ..

Om. Peace! Peace! Peace!

First Chapter

प्रथमोऽध्यायः .
prathamo'dhyāyaḥ

हरिः ॐ .. ब्रह्मवादिनो वदन्ति .
hariḥ auṁ .. brahmavādino vadanti

Harī Oṁ … Rishis, discoursing on Brahman, ask:

किं कारणं ब्रह्म कुतः स्म जाता
जीवाम केन क्व च संप्रतिष्ठा .
अधिष्ठिताः केन सुखेतरेषु
वर्तामहे ब्रह्मविदो व्यवस्थाम् .. १..

kiṁ kāraṇaṁ brahma kutaḥ sma jātā
jīvāma kena kva ca saṁpratiṣṭhā .
adhiṣṭhitāḥ kena sukhetareṣu
vartāmahe brahmavido vyavasthām .. 1..

Is Brahman the cause? Whence are we born?
By what do we live? Where do we dwell at the end?

Please tell us, O ye who know Brahman,
under whose guidance we abide, whether in pleasure or in pain.

कालः स्वभावो नियतिर्यदृच्छा
भूतानि योनिः पुरुष इति चिन्त्या .
संयोग एषां न त्वात्मभावा-
दात्माप्यनीशः सुखदुःखहेतोः .. २..

kālaḥ svabhāvo niyatiryadṛcchā
bhūtāni yoniḥ puruṣa iti cintyā .
saṁyoga eṣāṁ na tvātmabhāvā
dātmāpyanīśaḥ sukhaduḥkhahetoḥ .. 2..

Should time, or nature, or necessity, or chance, or the elements
be regarded as the cause?
Or he who is called the puruṣa, the living self?

The cause cannot be the combination of these entities,
since there is a living self, Ātman,
for whose sake the combination has been made;
yet neither is the Ātman the cause,
for it, in turn, is dependent upon good and evil.

ते ध्यानयोगानुगता अपश्यन्
देवात्मशक्तिं स्वगुणैर्निगूढाम् .
यः कारणानि निखिलानि तानि
कालात्मयुक्तान्यधितिष्ठत्येकः .. ३..

te dhyānayogānugatā apaśyan
devātmaśaktiṁ svaguṇairnigūḍhām .
yaḥ kāraṇāni nikhilāni tāni
kālātmayuktānyadhitiṣṭhatyekaḥ .. 3..

The sages, absorbed in meditation through one-pointedness of mind,
discovered the [creative] power,
belonging to the Lord Himself and hidden in its own guṇas.

That non-dual Lord rules over all those causes —time, the self, and the rest.

तमेकनेमिं त्रिवृतं षोडशान्तं
शतार्धारं विंशतिप्रत्यराभिः .
अष्टकैः षड्भिर्विश्वरूपैकपाशं
त्रिमार्गभेदं द्विनिमित्तैकमोहम् .. ४..

tamekanemiṁ trivṛtaṁ ṣoḍaśāntaṁ
śatārdhāraṁ viṁśatipratyarābhiḥ .
aṣṭakaiḥ ṣaḍbhirviśvarūpaikapāśaṁ
trimārgabhedaṁ dvinimittaikamoham .. 4.

The sages saw the Wheel of Brahman,
which has one felly, a triple tire, sixteen end-parts,
fifty spokes with twenty counter-spokes, and six sets of eight;
whose one rope is manifold; which moves on three different roads;
and whose illusion arises from two causes.

पञ्चस्रोतोम्बुं पञ्चयोन्युग्रवक्रां
पञ्चप्राणोर्मिं पञ्चबुद्ध्यादिमूलाम् .
पञ्चावर्तां पञ्चदुःखौघवेगां
पञ्चाशद्भेदां पञ्चपर्वामधीमः .. ५..

pañcasrotombuṁ pañcayonyugravakrāṁ
pañcaprāṇormiṁ pañcabuddhyādimūlām .
pañcāvartāṁ pañcaduḥkhaughavegāṁ
pañcāśadbhedāṁ pañcaparvāmadhīmaḥ .. 5..

We meditate on the River
whose five currents are the five organs of perception,
which is made impetuous and winding by the five elements,
whose waves are the five organs of action,
and whose fountain- head is the mind, the source of the five forms of perception.

This River has five whirlpools and its rapids are the fivefold misery;
and lastly, it has fifty Branches and five pain-bearing obstructions.

सर्वाजीवे सर्वसंस्थे बृहन्ते
अस्मिन् हंसो भ्राम्यते ब्रह्मचक्रे .
पृथगात्मानं प्रेरितारं च मत्वा
जुष्टस्ततस्तेनामृतत्वमेति .. ६..

sarvājīve sarvasaṁsthe bṛhante
asmin haṁso bhrāmyate brahmacakre .
pṛthagātmānaṁ preritāraṁ ca matvā
juṣṭastatastenāmṛtatvameti .. 6..

In this great Brahma-Wheel, in which all things abide and finally rest,

the swan (jīva) wanders about so long as it thinks the self is different from the Controller.

When blessed by Him the self attains Immortality.

उद्गीतमेतत्परमं तु ब्रह्म
तस्मिंस्त्रयं सुप्रतिष्ठाऽक्षरं च .
अत्रान्तरं ब्रह्मविदो विदित्वा
लीना ब्रह्मणि तत्परा योनिमुक्ताः .. ७..

udgītametatparamaṁ tu brahma
tasmiṁstrayaṁ supratiṣṭhā'kṣaraṁ ca .
atrāntaraṁ brahmavido viditvā
līnā brahmaṇi tatparā yonimuktāḥ .. 7..

It is the Supreme Brahman alone
[untouched by phenomena] that is proclaimed [in the Upanishads].
In It is established the triad
[of the enjoyer, the object, and the Lord who is the Controller],

This Brahman is the immutable foundation; It is imperishable.
The sages, having realized Brahman to be the essence of phenomena,
become devoted to It.
Completely merged in Brahman, they attain freedom from rebirth.

संयुक्तमेतत् क्षरमक्षरं च
व्यक्ताव्यक्तं भरते विश्वमीशः .
अनीशश्चात्मा बध्यते भोक्तृ-
भावाज् ज्ञात्वा देवं मुच्यते सर्वपाशैः .. ८..

saṁyuktametat kṣaramakṣaraṁ ca
vyaktāvyaktaṁ bharate viśvamīśaḥ .
anīśaścātmā badhyate bhoktṛ
bhāvāj jñātvā devaṁ mucyate sarvapāśaiḥ .. 8..

The Lord, Īśa, supports all this which has been joined together—
the perishable and the imperishable,
the manifest (the effect) and the unmanifest (the cause).

The same Lord (the Supreme Self), devoid of Lordship [i.e. as the jīva],
becomes bound because of assuming the attitude of the enjoyer.

The jīva again realizes the Supreme Self and is freed from all fetters.

ज्ञाज्ञौ द्वावजावीशनीशावजा
ह्येका भोक्तृभोग्यार्थयुक्ता .
अनन्तश्चात्मा विश्वरूपो ह्यकर्ता
त्रयं यदा विन्दते ब्रह्ममेतत् .. ९..

jñājñau dvāvajāvīśanīśāvajā
hyekā bhoktṛbhogyārthayuktā .
anantaścātmā viśvarūpo hyakartā
trayaṁ yadā vindate brahmametat .. 9..

The Supreme Lord appears as Īśvara, omniscient and omnipotent,
and as the jīva, of limited knowledge and power, both unborn.

[But this does not deny the phenomenal universe;]
for there exists further the unborn prakṛti,
which creates [the ideas of] the enjoyer, enjoyment, and the object.

Ātman is infinite and all-pervading, and therefore devoid of agency.

When the seeker knows all these three to be Brahman, he is freed from his fetters.

क्षरं प्रधानममृताक्षरं हरः
क्षरात्मानावीशते देव एकः .
तस्याभिध्यानाद्योजनात्तत्त्व-
भावात् भूयश्चान्ते विश्वमायानिवृत्तिः .. १०..

kṣaraṁ pradhānamamṛtākṣaraṁ haraḥ
kṣarātmānāvīśate deva ekaḥ .
tasyābhidhyānādyojanāttattva
bhāvāt bhūyaścānte viśvamāyānivṛttiḥ .. 10..

Prakṛti is perishable. Hara, the Lord, is immortal and imperishable.
The non-dual Supreme Self rules both prakṛti and the individual soul.

Through constant meditation on Him, by union with Him,
by the knowledge of identity with Him,
one attains, in the end, cessation of the illusion of phenomena.

ज्ञात्वा देवं सर्वपाशापहानिः
क्षीणैः वलेशेर्जन्ममृत्युप्रहाणिः .
तस्याभिध्यानात्तृतीयं देहभेदे
विश्वैश्वर्यं केवल आप्तकामः .. ११..

jñātvā devaṁ sarvapāśāpahāniḥ
kṣīṇaiḥ valeśerjanmamṛtyuprahāṇiḥ .
tasyābhidhyānāttṛtīyaṁ dehabhede
viśvaiśvaryaṁ kevala āptakāmaḥ .. 11..

When the Lord is known all fetters fall off;
with the cessation of miseries, birth and death come to an end.

From meditation on Him there arises, after the dissolution of the body,
the third state, that of universal lordship.

And lastly, the aspirant, transcending that state also,
abides in the complete Bliss of Brahman.

एतज्ज्ञेयं नित्यमेवात्मसंस्थं
नातः परं वेदितव्यं हि किञ्चित् .
भोक्ता भोग्यं प्रेरितारं च मत्वा
सर्वं प्रोक्तं त्रिविधं ब्रह्ममेतत् .. १२..

etajjñeyaṁ nityamevātmasaṁsthaṁ
nātaḥ paraṁ veditavyaṁ hi kiñcit .
bhoktā bhogyaṁ preritāraṁ ca matvā
sarvaṁ proktaṁ trividhaṁ brahmametat .. 12..

The enjoyer (jīva), the objects of enjoyment, and the Ruler (Īśvara) —
the triad described by the knowers of Brahman—
all this is nothing but Brahman.

This Brahman alone, which abides eternally within the self, should be known.
Beyond It, truly, there is nothing else to be known.

वह्नेर्यथा योनिगतस्य मूर्तिनर्
दृश्यते नैव च लिङ्गनाशः .
स भूय एवेन्धनयोनिगृह्य-
स्तद्वोभयं वै प्रणवेन देहे .. १३..

vahneryathā yonigatasya mūrtinar
dṛśyate naiva ca liṅganāśaḥ .
sa bhūya evendhanayonigṛhya
stadvobhayaṁ vai praṇavena dehe .. 13..

The [visible] form of fire,
while it lies latent in its source [the firewood], is not perceived;
yet there is no destruction of its subtle form.

That very fire can be brought out again
by means of [persistent] rubbing of the wood, its source.

In like manner, Ātman, which exists in two states, like fire,
can be grasped in this very body by means of OM.

स्वदेहमरणिं कृत्वा प्रणवं चोत्तरारणिम् .
ध्याननिर्मथनाभ्यासादेवं पश्यन्निगूढवत् .. १४..

svadehamaraṇiṁ kṛtvā praṇavaṁ cottarāraṇim .
dhyānanirmathanābhyāsādevaṁ paśyannigūḍhavat .. 14..

By making the body the lower piece of wood, and OM the upper piece,
and through the practice of the friction of meditation,
one perceives the luminous Self,
hidden like the fire in the wood.

तिलेषु तैलं दधिनीव सर्पि-
रापः स्रोतःस्वरणीषु चाग्निः .
एवमात्माऽत्मनि गृह्यतेऽसौ
सत्येनैनं तपसायोऽनुपश्यति .. १५..

सर्वव्यापिनमात्मानं क्षीरे सर्पिरिवार्पितम् .
आत्मविद्यातपोमूलं तद्ब्रह्मोपनिषत् परम् .. १६..

tileṣu tailaṁ dadhinīva sarpi
rāpaḥ srotaḥsvaraṇīṣu cāgniḥ .
evamātmā'tmani gṛhyate'sau
satyenainaṁ tapasāyo'nupaśyati .. 15..

sarvavyāpinamātmānaṁ kṣīre sarpirivārpitam .
ātmavidyātapomūlaṁ tadbrahmopaniṣat param .. 16..

As oil [exists] in sesame seeds, butter in milk,
water in river-beds, and fire in wood,
so the Self is realized [as existing] within the self,
when a man looks for It by means of truthfulness and austerity—

when he looks for the Self,
which pervades all things as butter [pervades] milk,
and whose roots are Self-Knowledge and austerity.

That is the Brahman taught by the Upanishad;
yea, that is the Brahman taught by the Upanishad.

Here ends the First Chapter of the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad.

Second Chapter

द्वितीयोऽध्यायः .
dvitīyo'dhyāyaḥ

युञ्जानः प्रथमं मनस्तत्त्वाय सविता धियः .
अग्नेर्ज्योतिर्निचाय्य पृथिव्या अध्याभरत् .. १..

yuñjānaḥ prathamaṁ manastattvāya savitā dhiyaḥ .
agnerjyotirnicāyya pṛthivyā adhyābharat .. 1..

May the sun, at the commencement of yoga,
join our minds and other organs to the Supreme Self
so that we may attain the Knowledge of Reality.

May He, also, support the body, the highest material entity,
through the powers of the deities who control the senses.

युक्तेन मनसा वयं देवस्य सवितुः सवे .
सुवर्गेयाय शक्त्या .. २..

yuktena manasā vayaṁ devasya savituḥ save .
suvargeyāya śaktyā .. 2..

Having received the blessings of the divine Sun,
and with minds joined to the Supreme Self,
we exert ourselves, to the best of our power, toward meditation,
by which we shall attain Heaven (Brahman).

युक्त्वाय मनसा देवान् सुवर्यतो धिया दिवम् .
बृहज्ज्योतिः करिष्यतः सविता प्रसुवाति तान् .. ३..

yuktvāya manasā devān suvaryato dhiyā divam .
bṛhajjyotiḥ kariṣyataḥ savitā prasuvāti tān .. 3..

May the Sun bestow favour upon the senses and the mind
by joining them with the Self,
so that the senses may be directed toward the Blissful Brahman
and may reveal, by means of Knowledge, the mighty and radiant Brahman.

युञ्जते मन उत युञ्जते धियो
विप्रा विप्रस्य बृहतो विपश्चितः .
वि होत्रा दधे वयुनाविदेक
इन्मही देवस्य सवितुः परिष्टुतिः .. ४..

yuñjate mana uta yuñjate dhiyo
viprā viprasya bṛhato vipaścitaḥ .
vi hotrā dadhe vayunāvideka
inmahī devasya savituḥ pariṣṭutiḥ .. 4..

It is the duty of those brāhmins
who fix their minds and senses on the Supreme Self
to utter such lofty invocations to the divine Sun,
omnipresent, mighty, and omniscient.
For He, all-witnessing and non- dual, is the dispenser of sacrifices.

युजे वां ब्रह्म पूर्व्यं नमोभिर्विश्लोक
एतु पथ्येव सूरेः .
शृण्वन्तु विश्वे अमृतस्य पुत्रा आ ये
धामानि दिव्यानि तस्थुः .. ५..

yuje vāṁ brahma pūrvyaṁ namobhirviśloka
etu pathyeva sūreḥ .
śṛṇvantu viśve amṛtasya putrā ā ye
dhāmāni divyāni tasthuḥ .. 5..

O senses, and O deities who favour them!
Through salutations I unite myself with the eternal Brahman, who is your source.
Let this prayer sung by me, who follow the right path of the Sun, go forth in all directions. May the sons of the Immortal, who occupy celestial positions, hear it!

अग्निर्यत्राभिमथ्यते वायुर्यत्राधिरुध्यते .
सोमो यत्रातिरिच्यते तत्र सञ्जायते मनः .. ६..

agniryatrābhimathyate vāyuryatrādhirudhyate .
somo yatrātiricyate tatra sañjāyate manaḥ .. 6..

[If sacrifices are performed without first propitiating the Sun,]
then the mind becomes attached to sacrifices
in which fire is kindled by the rubbing [of the pieces of fire-wood],
the oblations are offered to the deity Vāyu,
and the soma juice is drunk excessively.

सवित्रा प्रसवेन जुषेत ब्रह्म पूर्व्यम् .
यत्र योनिं कृणवसे न हि ते पूर्तमक्षिपत् .. ७..

savitrā prasavena juṣeta brahma pūrvyam .
yatra yoniṁ kṛṇavase na hi te pūrtamakṣipat .. 7..

Serve the eternal Brahman
with the blessings of the Sun, the cause of the universe.
Be absorbed, through samadhi, in the eternal Brahman.
Thus your work will not bind you.

त्रिरुन्नतं स्थाप्य समं शरीरं
हृदीन्द्रियाणि मनसा सन्निवेश्य .
ब्रह्मोडुपेन प्रतरेत विद्वान्
स्रोतांसि सर्वाणि भयानकानि .. ८..

trirunnataṁ sthāpya samaṁ śarīraṁ
hṛdīndriyāṇi manasā sanniveśya .
brahmoḍupena pratareta vidvān
srotāṁsi sarvāṇi bhayānakāni .. 8..

The wise man should hold his body steady, with the three [upper] parts erect,
turn his senses, with the help of the mind, toward the heart,
and by means of the raft of Brahman cross the fearful torrents of the world.

प्राणान् प्रपीड्येह संयुक्तचेष्टः
क्षीणे प्राणे नासिकयोच्छ्वसीत .
दुष्टाश्वयुक्तमिव वाहमेनं
विद्वान् मनो धारयेताप्रमत्तः .. ९..

prāṇān prapīḍyeha saṁyuktaceṣṭaḥ
kṣīṇe prāṇe nāsikayocchvasīta .
duṣṭāśvayuktamiva vāhamenaṁ
vidvān mano dhārayetāpramattaḥ .. 9..

The yogi of well-regulated endeavours should control the prāṇas;
when they are quieted he should breathe out through the nostrils.
Then let him undistractedly restrain his mind,
as a charioteer restrains his vicious horses.

समे शुचौ शर्करावह्निवालिका-
विवर्जिते शब्दजलाश्रयादिभिः .
मनोनुकूले न तु चक्षुपीडने
गुहानिवाताश्रयणे प्रयोजयेत् .. १०..

same śucau śarkarāvahnivālikā
vivarjite śabdajalāśrayādibhiḥ .
manonukūle na tu cakṣupīḍane
guhānivātāśrayaṇe prayojayet .. 10..

Let yoga be practised within a cave protected from the high wind,
or in a place which is level, pure, and free from pebbles, gravel, and fire,
undisturbed by the noise of water or of market-booths,
and which is delightful to the mind and not offensive to the eye.

नीहारधूमार्कानिलानलानां
खद्योतविद्युत्स्फटिकशशीनाम् .
एतानि रूपाणि पुरःसराणि
ब्रह्मण्यभिव्यक्तिकराणि योगे .. ११..

nīhāradhūmārkānilānalānāṁ
khadyotavidyutsphaṭikaśaśīnām .
etāni rūpāṇi puraḥsarāṇi
brahmaṇyabhivyaktikarāṇi yoge .. 11..

When yoga is practised, the forms which appear first
and which gradually manifest Brahman
are those of snow-flakes, smoke, sun, wind, fire,
fire-flies, lightning, crystal, and the moon.

पृथिव्यप्तेजोऽनिलखे समुत्थिते
पञ्चात्मके योगगुणे प्रवृत्ते .
न तस्य रोगो न जरा न मृत्युः
प्राप्तस्य योगाग्निमयं शरीरम् .. १२..

pṛthivyaptejo'nilakhe samutthite
pañcātmake yogaguṇe pravṛtte .
na tasya rogo na jarā na mṛtyuḥ
prāptasya yogāgnimayaṁ śarīram .. 12..

When earth, water, fire, air, and ākāśa arise,
that is to say, when the five attributes of the elements, mentioned in the books on yoga, become manifest,
then the yogi’s body becomes purified by the fire of yoga and he is free from illness, old age, and death.

लघुत्वमारोग्यमलोलुपत्वं
वर्णप्रसादः स्वरसौष्ठवं च .
गन्धः शुभो मूत्रपुरीषमल्पं
योगप्रवृत्तिं प्रथमां वदन्ति .. १३..

laghutvamārogyamalolupatvaṁ
varṇaprasādaḥ svarasauṣṭhavaṁ ca .
gandhaḥ śubho mūtrapurīṣamalpaṁ
yogapravṛttiṁ prathamāṁ vadanti .. 13..

The precursors of perfection in yoga, they say,
are lightness and healthiness of the body, absence of desire,
clear complexion, pleasantness of voice, sweet odour, and slight excretions.

यथैव बिंबं मृदयोपलिप्तं
तेजोमयं भ्राजते तत् सुधान्तम् .
तद्वाऽऽत्मतत्त्वं प्रसमीक्ष्य देही
एकः कृतार्थो भवते वीतशोकः .. १४..

yathaiva biṁbaṁ mṛdayopaliptaṁ
tejomayaṁ bhrājate tat sudhāntam .
tadvā''tmatattvaṁ prasamīkṣya dehī
ekaḥ kṛtārtho bhavate vītaśokaḥ .. 14..

As gold covered by earth shines bright after it has been purified,
so also the yogi, realizing the truth of Ātman,
becomes one [with the non-dual Ātman],
attains the goal, and is free from grief.

यदात्मतत्त्वेन तु ब्रह्मतत्त्वं
दीपोपमेनेह युक्तः प्रपश्येत् .
अजं ध्रुवं सर्वतत्त्वैर्विशुद्धं
ज्ञात्वा देवं मुच्यते सर्वपापैः .. १५..

yadātmatattvena tu brahmatattvaṁ
dīpopameneha yuktaḥ prapaśyet .
ajaṁ dhruvaṁ sarvatattvairviśuddhaṁ
jñātvā devaṁ mucyate sarvapāpaiḥ .. 15..

And when the yogi beholds the real nature of Brahman,
through the Knowledge of the Self, radiant as a lamp,
then, having known the unborn and immutable Lord,
who is untouched by ignorance and its effects,
he is freed from all fetters.

एषो ह देवः प्रदिशोऽनु सर्वाः .
पूर्वो ह जातः स उ गर्भे अन्तः .
स एव जातः स जनिष्यमाणः
प्रत्यङ् जनास्तिष्ठति सर्वतोमुखः .. १६..

eṣo ha devaḥ pradiśo'nu sarvāḥ .
pūrvo ha jātaḥ sa u garbhe antaḥ .
sa eva jātaḥ sa janiṣyamāṇaḥ
pratyaṅ janāstiṣṭhati sarvatomukhaḥ .. 16..

He indeed, the Lord, who pervades all regions, was the first to be born,
and it is He who dwells in the womb [of the universe].
It is He, again, who is born [as a child], and He will be born in the future.
He stands behind all persons, and His face is everywhere.

यो देवो अग्नौ योऽप्सु
यो विश्वं भुवनमाविवेश .
य ओषधीषु यो वनस्पतिषु
तस्मै देवाय नमो नमः .. १७..

yo devo agnau yo'psu
yo viśvaṁ bhuvanamāviveśa .
ya oṣadhīṣu yo vanaspatiṣu
tasmai devāya namo namaḥ .. 17..

The self-luminous Lord, who is in fire, who is in water,
who has entered into the whole world, who is in plants, who is in trees—

to that Lord let there be adoration! Yea, let there be adoration!

Here ends the Second Chapter of the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad.

Third Chapter

तृतीयोऽध्यायः .
tṛtīyo'dhyāyaḥ

य एको जालवानीशत ईशनीभिः
सर्वांल्लोकानीशत ईशनीभिः .
य एवैक उद्भवे सम्भवे च
य एतद् विदुरमृतास्ते भवन्ति .. १..

ya eko jālavānīśata īśanībhiḥ
sarvāṁllokānīśata īśanībhiḥ .
ya evaika udbhave sambhave ca
ya etad viduramṛtāste bhavanti .. 1..

The non-dual ensnarer rules by His powers. Remaining one and the same, He rules by His powers all the worlds during their manifestation and continued existence.

They who know this become immortal.

एको हि रुद्रो न द्वितीयाय तस्थु-
र्य इमांल्लोकानीशत ईशनीभिः .
प्रत्यङ् जनास्तिष्ठति सञ्चुकोचान्तकाले
संसृज्य विश्वा भुवनानि गोपाः .. २..

eko hi rudro na dvitīyāya tasthu
rya imāṁllokānīśata īśanībhiḥ .
pratyaṅ janāstiṣṭhati sañcukocāntakāle
saṁsṛjya viśvā bhuvanāni gopāḥ .. 2..

Rudra is truly one;
for the knowers of Brahman do not admit the existence of a second.
He alone rules all the worlds by His powers.
He dwells as the inner Self of every living being.
After having created all the worlds,
He, their Protector, takes them back into Himself at the end of time.

विश्वतश्चक्षुरुत विश्वतोमुखो
विश्वतोबाहुरुत विश्वतस्पात् .
सं बाहुभ्यां धमति संपतत्रै-
र्द्यावाभूमी जनयन् देव एकः .. ३..

viśvataścakṣuruta viśvatomukho
viśvatobāhuruta viśvataspāt .
saṁ bāhubhyāṁ dhamati saṁpatatrai
rdyāvābhūmī janayan deva ekaḥ .. 3..

His eyes are everywhere, His faces everywhere,
His arms everywhere, everywhere His feet.
He it is who endows men with arms, birds with feet and wings,
and men likewise with feet.

Having produced heaven and earth, He remains as their non-dual manifester.

यो देवानां प्रभवश्चोद्भवश्च
विश्वाधिपो रुद्रो महर्षिः .
हिरण्यगर्भं जनयामास पूर्वं
स नो बुद्ध्या शुभया संयुनक्तु .. ४..

yo devānāṁ prabhavaścodbhavaśca
viśvādhipo rudro maharṣiḥ .
hiraṇyagarbhaṁ janayāmāsa pūrvaṁ
sa no buddhyā śubhayā saṁyunaktu .. 4..

He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe,

He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiraṇyagarbha— may He endow us with clear intellect!

या ते रुद्र शिवा तनूरघोराऽपापकाशिनी .
तया नस्तनुवा शन्तमया गिरिशन्ताभिचाकशीहि .. ५..

yā te rudra śivā tanūraghorā'pāpakāśinī .
tayā nastanuvā śantamayā giriśantābhicākaśīhi .. 5..

O Rudra, Thou who dwellest in the body and bestowest happiness!

Look upon us with that most blessed form of Thine,
which is auspicious, unterrifying, and all good.

याभिषुं गिरिशन्त हस्ते बिभर्ष्यस्तवे .
शिवां गिरित्र तां कुरु मा हिंसीः पुरुषं जगत् .. ६..

yābhiṣuṁ giriśanta haste bibharṣyastave .
śivāṁ giritra tāṁ kuru mā hiṁsīḥ puruṣaṁ jagat .. 6..

O Dweller in the body and Bestower of happiness,
make benign that arrow which Thou holdest in Thy hand ready to shoot,
O Protector of the body! Do not injure man or the world!

ततः परं ब्रह्म परं बृहन्तं
यथानिकायं सर्वभूतेषु गूढम् .
विश्वस्यैकं परिवेष्टितार-
मीशं तं ज्ञात्वाऽमृता भवन्ति .. ७..

tataḥ paraṁ brahma paraṁ bṛhantaṁ
yathānikāyaṁ sarvabhūteṣu gūḍham .
viśvasyaikaṁ pariveṣṭitāra
mīśaṁ taṁ jñātvā'mṛtā bhavanti .. 7..

The Supreme Lord is higher than Virāt, beyond Hiraṇyagarbha.
He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings.
By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal.

वेदाहमेतं पुरुषं महान्त-
मादित्यवर्णं तमसः परस्तात् .
तमेव विदित्वातिमृत्युमेति
नान्यः पन्था विद्यतेऽयनाय .. ८..

vedāhametaṁ puruṣaṁ mahānta
mādityavarṇaṁ tamasaḥ parastāt .
tameva viditvātimṛtyumeti
nānyaḥ panthā vidyate'yanāya .. 8..

I know the great Puruṣa, who is luminous, like the sun, and beyond darkness.
Only by knowing Him does one pass over death;
there is no other way to the Supreme Goal.

यस्मात् परं नापरमस्ति किंचिद्य-
स्मान्नणीयो न ज्यायोऽस्ति कश्चित् .
वृक्ष इव स्तब्धो दिवि तिष्ठत्येक-
स्तेनेदं पूर्णं पुरुषेण सर्वम् .. ९..

yasmāt paraṁ nāparamasti kiṁcidya
smānnaṇīyo na jyāyo'sti kaścit .
vṛkṣa iva stabdho divi tiṣṭhatyeka
stenedaṁ pūrṇaṁ puruṣeṇa sarvam .. 9..

The whole universe is filled by the Puruṣa,
to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different,
than whom there is nothing either smaller or greater;
who stands alone, motionless as a tree, established in His own glory.

ततो यदुत्तरततं तदरूपमनामयम् .
य एतद्विदुरमृतास्ते भवन्ति अथेतरे दुःखमेवापियन्ति .. १०..

tato yaduttaratataṁ tadarūpamanāmayam .
ya etadviduramṛtāste bhavanti athetare duḥkhamevāpiyanti .. 10..

That which is farthest from this world is without form and without affliction.
They who know It become immortal; but others, indeed, suffer pain.

सर्वानन शिरोग्रीवः सर्वभूतगुहाशयः .
सर्वव्यापी स भगवांस्तस्मात् सर्वगतः शिवः .. ११..

sarvānana śirogrīvaḥ sarvabhūtaguhāśayaḥ .
sarvavyāpī sa bhagavāṁstasmāt sarvagataḥ śivaḥ .. 11..

All faces are His faces; all heads, His heads; all necks, His necks.
He dwells in the hearts of all beings. He is the all-pervading Bhagavan.
Therefore He is the omnipresent and benign Lord.

महान् प्रभुर्वै पुरुषः सत्वस्यैष प्रवर्तकः .
सुनिर्मलामिमां प्राप्तिमीशानो ज्योतिरव्ययः .. १२..

mahān prabhurvai puruṣaḥ satvasyaiṣa pravartakaḥ .
sunirmalāmimāṁ prāptimīśāno jyotiravyayaḥ .. 12..

He, indeed, is the great Puruṣa,
the Lord [of creation, preservation, and destruction],
who inspires the mind to attain the state of stainless¬ness.
He is the Ruler and the Light that is imperishable.

अङ्गुष्ठमात्रः पुरुषोऽन्तरात्मा
सदा जनानां हृदये सन्निविष्टः .
हृदा मनीषा मनसाभिक्लृप्तो
य एतद् विदुरमृतास्ते भवन्ति .. १३..

aṅguṣṭhamātraḥ puruṣo'ntarātmā
sadā janānāṁ hṛdaye sanniviṣṭaḥ .
hṛdā manīṣā manasābhiklṛpto
ya etad viduramṛtāste bhavanti .. 13..

The Puruṣa, no bigger than a thumb, is the inner Self,
ever seated in the heart of man.
He is known by the mind, which controls knowl¬edge,
and is perceived in the heart.
They who know Him become im¬mortal.

सहस्रशीर्षा पुरुषः सहस्राक्षः सहस्रपात् .
स भूमिं विश्वतो वृत्वा अत्यतिष्ठद्दशाङ्गुलम् .. १४..

sahasraśīrṣā puruṣaḥ sahasrākṣaḥ sahasrapāt .
sa bhūmiṁ viśvato vṛtvā atyatiṣṭhaddaśāṅgulam .. 14..

The Puruṣa with a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet,
compasses the earth on all sides and extends beyond it by ten fingers’ breadth.

पुरुष एवेदँ सर्वं यद् भूतं यच्च भव्यम् .
उतामृतत्वस्येशानो यदन्नेनातिरोहति .. १५..

puruṣa evedaɱ sarvaṁ yad bhūtaṁ yacca bhavyam .
utāmṛtatvasyeśāno yadannenātirohati .. 15..

The Puruṣa alone is all this—what has been and what will be.
He is also the Lord of Immortality and of whatever grows by food.

सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत् सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम् .
सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति .. १६..

sarvataḥ pāṇipādaṁ tat sarvato'kṣiśiromukham .
sarvataḥ śrutimalloke sarvamāvṛtya tiṣṭhati .. 16..

His hands and feet are everywhere;
His eyes, heads, and faces are everywhere;
His ears are everywhere;
He exists compassing all.

सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम् .
सर्वस्य प्रभुमीशानं सर्वस्य शरणं सुहृत् .. १७..

sarvendriyaguṇābhāsaṁ sarvendriyavivarjitam .
sarvasya prabhumīśānaṁ sarvasya śaraṇaṁ suhṛt .. 17..

Himself devoid of senses, He shines through the functions of the senses.
He is the capable ruler of all; He is the refuge of all. He is great.

नवद्वारे पुरे देही हंसो लेलायते बहिः .
वशी सर्वस्य लोकस्य स्थावरस्य चरस्य च .. १८..

navadvāre pure dehī haṁso lelāyate bahiḥ .
vaśī sarvasya lokasya sthāvarasya carasya ca .. 18..

The Swan, the ruler of the whole world,
of all that is moving and all that is motionless,
becomes the embodied self,
and dwelling in the city of nine gates, flies outward.

अपाणिपादो जवनो ग्रहीता
पश्यत्यचक्षुः स शृणोत्यकर्णः .
स वेत्ति वेद्यं न च तस्यास्ति वेत्ता
तमाहुरग्र्यं पुरुषं महान्तम् .. १९..

apāṇipādo javano grahītā
paśyatyacakṣuḥ sa śṛṇotyakarṇaḥ .
sa vetti vedyaṁ na ca tasyāsti vettā
tamāhuragryaṁ puruṣaṁ mahāntam .. 19..

Grasping without hands, hasting without feet,
It sees without eyes, It hears without ears.
It knows what is to be known, but no one knows It.
They call It the First, the Great, the Full.

अणोरणीयान् महतो महीया-
नात्मा गुहायां निहितोऽस्य जन्तोः .
तमक्रतुः पश्यति वीतशोको
धातुः प्रसादान्महिमानमीशम् .. २०..

aṇoraṇīyān mahato mahīyā
nātmā guhāyāṁ nihito'sya jantoḥ .
tamakratuḥ paśyati vītaśoko
dhātuḥ prasādānmahimānamīśam .. 20..

The Self, smaller than the small, greater than the great,
is hidden in the hearts of creatures.
The wise, by the grace of the Creator,
behold the Lord, majestic and desireless, and become free from grief.

वेदाहमेतमजरं पुराणं
सर्वात्मानं सर्वगतं विभुत्वात् .
जन्मनिरोधं प्रवदन्ति यस्य
ब्रह्मवादिनो हि प्रवदन्ति नित्यम् .. २१..

vedāhametamajaraṁ purāṇaṁ
sarvātmānaṁ sarvagataṁ vibhutvāt .
janmanirodhaṁ pravadanti yasya
brahmavādino hi pravadanti nityam .. 21..

I know this undecaying, primeval One, the Self of all things,
which exists everywhere, being all-pervading,
and which the wise declare to be free from birth.

The teachers of Brahman, indeed, speak of It as eternal.

Here ends the Third Chapter of the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad.