Taittirīya Upanishad | Book 2

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Taittirīya Upanishad

II Book

॥ ब्रह्मानन्दवल्ली ॥
|| brahmānandavallī||

Second Book named Brahmānanda vallī

The special feature of the Second Book of the Taittirīya Upanishad - Brahmānanda vallī is in the grand proclamation that Brahman is Ānandamaya or Supreme Bliss.

Wherever there is the bliss or joy, it is a reflection of the light of Brahman. But its fullest expression is in the unfettered joy of the consciousness of the Universal Life.

It further shows by beautiful similes the place of human joys and pleasures in relation to the Supreme Bliss of the Universal.

ॐ सह नाववतु ।
सह नौ भुनक्तु ।
सह वीर्यं करवावहै ।
तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु मा विद्विषावहै ।

auṁ saha nāvavatu |
saha nau bhunaktu |
saha vīryaṁ karavāvahai |
tejasvi nāvadhītamastu mā vidviṣāvahai |

Om, May God Protect us Both
(the Teacher and the Student),
May God Nourish us Both,
May we Work Together with Energy and Vigour,
May our Study be Enlightening and not give rise to Hostility,

ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥
auṁ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ ||

Om Peace! Peace! Peace!

1 Chapter

ॐ ब्रह्मविदाप्नोति परम् ।
auṁ brahmavidāpnoti param |

Om. The knower of Brahman attains the supreme.

तदेषाऽभ्युक्ता ।
सत्यं ज्ञानमनन्तं ब्रह्म ।

tadeṣā'bhyuktā |
satyaṁ jñānamanantaṁ brahma |

In reference to that the following is said:
“The Real, the Conscious, the Infinite is Brahman.

यो वेद निहितं गुहायां परमे व्योमन् ।
सोऽश्नुते सर्वान् कामान् सह । ब्रह्मणा विपश्चितेति ॥

yo veda nihitaṁ guhāyāṁ parame vyoman |
so'śnute sarvān kāmān saha | brahmaṇā vipaściteti ||

He who knows that Supreme Ākāśa
as existing hidden in the heart
realises all his desires
along with the Omniscient Brahman.

तस्माद्वा एतस्मादात्मन आकाशः संभूतः । आकाशाद्वायुः ।
वायोरग्निः । अग्नेरापः । अद्भ्यः पृथिवी ।
पृथिव्या ओषधयः । ओषधीभ्योऽन्नम् । अन्नात्पुरुषः ।

tasmādvā etasmādātmana ākāśaḥ saṁbhūtaḥ | ākāśādvāyuḥ |
vāyoragniḥ | agnerāpaḥ | adbhyaḥ pṛthivī |
pṛthivyā oṣadhayaḥ | oṣadhībhyo'nnam | annātpuruṣaḥ |

So from this Ātman has sprung Ether and from Ether – Air;
From Air – Fire; from Fire – Water; from Water – Earth;
from Earth – Vegetables; from Vegetables – Food;
from Food – Man.

स वा एष पुरुषोऽन्नरसमयः ।
sa vā eṣa puruṣo'nnarasamayaḥ |

Thus man is constituted of the essence of food.

तस्येदमेव शिरः ।
अयं दक्षिणः पक्षः । अयमुत्तरः पक्षः ।
अयमात्मा । इदं पुच्छं प्रतिष्ठा ।

tasyedameva śiraḥ |
ayaṁ dakṣiṇaḥ pakṣaḥ | ayamuttaraḥ pakṣaḥ |
ayamātmā | idaṁ pucchaṁ pratiṣṭhā |

This verily is his head,
this is the right wing, this is the left wing,
this the trunk, and this is the tail and support.

तदप्येष श्लोको भवति ॥ १ ॥
tadapyeṣa śloko bhavati || 1 ||

About this also there is the following verse:

॥ इति प्रथमोऽनुवाकः ॥
|| iti prathamo'nuvākaḥ ||

It was the First Chapter

2 Chapter

annādvai prajāḥ prajāyante | yāḥ kāśca pṛthivīɱ
śritāḥ |
atho annenaiva jīvanti | athainadapi yantyantataḥ |
annaɱ hi bhūtānāṁ jyeṣṭham | tasmāt sarvauṣadhamucyate |
sarvaṁ vai te'nnamāpnuvanti | ye'nnaṁ brahmopāsate |
annaɱ hi bhūtānāṁ jyeṣṭham | tasmāt sarvauṣadhamucyate |
annād bhūtāni jāyante | jātānyannena vardhante |
adyate'tti ca bhūtāni | tasmādannaṁ taducyata iti |
tasmādvā etasmādannarasamayāt | anyo'ntara ātmā prāṇamayaḥ |
tenaiṣa pūrṇaḥ |
sa vā eṣa puruṣavidha eva |
tasya puruṣavidhatām | anvayaṁ puruṣavidhaḥ |
tasya prāṇa eva śiraḥ | vyāno dakṣiṇaḥ pakṣaḥ |
apāna uttaraḥ pakṣaḥ | ākāśa ātmā |
pṛthivī pucchaṁ pratiṣṭhā |

All beings, whatever exist on earth, are born of food.
And again, by food they are sustained
and unto it again they go back at the end.
So, verily Food is the eldest of all creatures;
and therefore it is called the medicament of all.
Those who regard Food as Brahman verily attain all food.

Food is indeed the eldest of all creatures.
Therefore it is called the medicament of all.
From Food all beings are born, having born, by food they grow.
It is called food because it is fed upon, or it feeds upon, creatures.

And so apart from this, constituted of the essence of food,
there is another separate Self made of Prāṇa.
By that this is filled. It is of the form of man.
Its human form is according to the human form of the former.
Prāṇa is its head; Vyāna is its right wing; Apāna is the left wing;
Sky is the body; the earth is the tail, the seat.

तदप्येष श्लोको भवति ॥ १ ॥
tadapyeṣa śloko bhavati || 1 ||

About it also there is the following verse...

इति द्वितीयोऽनुवाकः ॥
iti dvitīyo'nuvākaḥ ||

It was the Second Chapter.

3 Chapter

prāṇaṁ devā anu prāṇanti | manuṣyāḥ paśavaśca ye |
prāṇo hi bhūtānāmāyuḥ | tasmāt sarvāyuṣamucyate |
sarvameva ta āyuryanti | ye prāṇaṁ brahmopāsate |
prāṇo hi bhūtānāmāyuḥ | tasmāt sarvāyuṣamucyata iti |
tasyaiṣa eva śārīra ātmā | yaḥ pūrvasya |
tasmādvā etasmāt prāṇamayāt | anyo'ntara ātmā manomayaḥ |
tenaiṣa pūrṇaḥ |
sa vā eṣa puruṣavidha eva |
tasya puruṣavidhatām | anvayaṁ puruṣavidhaḥ |
tasya yajureva śiraḥ | ṛgdakṣiṇaḥ pakṣaḥ | sāmottaraḥ pakṣaḥ |
ādeśa ātmā | atharvāṅgirasaḥ pucchaṁ pratiṣṭhā |

Through Prāṇa the Devas live,
and so also do men and beasts.
Prāṇa is verily the life of beings
and hence it is called the Universal Life.
Those who worship Prāṇa as Brahman
assuredly attain the full span of life.

Verily Prāṇa is the life of beings,
and so it is called the Universal Life.
It is the embodied self of what has been described before.

And so apart from the Prāṇamāyā
there is another separate Self consisting of the Mind.
This is filled by that. This is also of the form of man.
Its human form is according to that of the former.
Yajus is its head; Ṛig – the right wing; Sāma – the left wing.
(Scriptural) injunction is the body and Atharva hymns the tail and the seat.

तदप्येष श्लोको भवति ॥ १ ॥
tadapyeṣa śloko bhavati || 1 ||

There is the following verse about it...

॥ इति तृतीयोऽनुवाकः ॥
|| iti tṛtīyo'nuvākaḥ ||

It was the Third Chapter.

4 Chapter

yato vāco nivartante | aprāpya manasā saha |
ānandaṁ brahmaṇo vidvān | na bibheti kadācaneti |
tasyaiṣa eva śārīra ātmā | yaḥ pūrvasya |
tasmādvā etasmānmanomayāt | anyo'ntara ātmā vijñānamayaḥ |
tenaiṣa pūrṇaḥ |
sa vā eṣa puruṣavidha eva |
tasya puruṣavidhatām |
anvayaṁ puruṣavidhaḥ | tasya śraddhaiva śiraḥ |
ṛtaṁ dakṣiṇaḥ pakṣaḥ |
satyamuttaraḥ pakṣaḥ | yoga ātmā | mahaḥ pucchaṁ pratiṣṭhā |

Whence all speech turn back with the Manas without reaching;
he who knows the bliss of Brahman fears not at any time.
Of that, - of the former, this one verily is the embodied self.
Than that and different from this (which is) formed of Manas,
is the other, the inner Self, formed of Vijñāna.
By that this is filled. It also has the shape of man.
According to the human shape of that, is the human form of this.
Faith is its head. Right is the right wing; Truth is the left wing;
yoga is the self and Mahā is the tail, the seat.

तदप्येष श्लोको भवति ॥ १ ॥
tadapyeṣa śloko bhavati || 1 ||

On this there is also the following verse...

॥ इति चतुर्थोऽनुवाकः ॥ || iti caturtho'nuvākaḥ ||

It was the Fourth Chapter

5 Chapter

vijñānaṁ yajñaṁ tanute | karmāṇi tanute'pi ca |
vijñānaṁ devāḥ sarve |
brahma jyeṣṭhamupāsate | vijñānaṁ brahma cedveda |
tasmāccenna pramādyati | śarīre pāpmano hitvā |
sarvānkāmānsamaśnuta iti |
tasyaiṣa eva śārīra ātmā | yaḥ pūrvasya |
tasmādvā etasmādvijñānamayāt |
anyo'ntara ātmā''nandamayaḥ | tenaiṣa pūrṇaḥ |
sa vā eṣa puruṣavidha eva | tasya puruṣavidhatām |
anvayaṁ puruṣavidhaḥ | tasya priyameva śiraḥ | modo dakṣiṇaḥ pakṣaḥ |
pramoda uttaraḥ pakṣaḥ | ānanda ātmā | brahma pucchaṁ pratiṣṭhā |

Intelligence performs the sacrifice
and it also performs the sacred acts.
All Devas worship Intelligence as Brahman, the Eldest.
If a man knows Intelligence as Brahman
and if he does not swerve from it,
he attains all desires, having left behind all sins of the body.
Of that, - of the former, this one verily is the embodied Self.
Than that and different from this (which is) formed of Vijñāna (intelligence),
is the other, the inner self, formed of Ānanda (bliss).
By that this is filled. It also has the shape of man.
According to the human shape of that is the human form of this.
Love is its head; joy its right wing; delight is its left wing;
bliss is the trunk (Self); Brahman is the tail, the support.

तदप्येष श्लोको भवति ॥ १ ॥
tadapyeṣa śloko bhavati || 1 ||

About that there is also the following verse....

॥ इति पञ्चमोऽनुवाकः ॥
|| iti pañcamo'nuvākaḥ ||

It was the Fifth Chapter

6 Chapter

asanneva sa bhavati | asadbrahmeti veda cet |
asti brahmeti cedveda | santamenaṁ tato viduriti |
tasyaiṣa eva śārīra ātmā | yaḥ pūrvasya |
athāto'nupraśnāḥ | utāvidvānamuṁ lokaṁ pretya |
kaścana gacchatī3 u |3 ṭhis is a mark for prolonging the vowel in the form |a'']|
āho vidvānamuṁ lokaṁ pretya kaścitsamaśnutā 3 u | so'kāmayata |
bahu syāṁ prajāyeyeti | sa tapo'tapyata | sa tapastaptvā |
idaɱ sarvamasṛjata | yadidaṁ kiñca | tatsṛṣṭvā |
tadevānuprāviśat | tadanupraviśya | sacca tyaccābhavat |
niruktaṁ cāniruktaṁ ca | nilayanaṁ cānilayanaṁ ca |
vijñānaṁ cāvijñānaṁ ca | satyaṁ cānṛtaṁ ca satyamabhavat |
yadidaṁ kiñca | tatsatyamityācakṣate |

Non-existent, verily, he becomes, who knows Brahman as non-existing.
He who knows Brahman as existing, him they regard then as existing.
Of him, of the former this verily is the embodied Self.
Thereupon arise the (following) questions (of the pupil):
Does he who knows not, after having departed this world, ever go there?
And also, does he who knows, after leaving the world, ever obtain that?
He desired:
May I be many, may I grow forth (through propagation).
He performed tapas.
Having performed tapas he brought forth all this, - whatever there is.
Having brought forth he entered it. Having entered it
he became Sat (what is manifest) and Tyat (what is not manifest),
defined and undefined, supported and unsupported,
sentient and insentient, real and unreal.
The Satya (true), -  became all this – whatever there is,
and therefore they call it Satya (existent).

तदप्येष श्लोको भवति ॥ १ ॥
tadapyeṣa śloko bhavati || 1 ||

On this there is the following verse...

॥ इति षष्ठोऽनुवाकः ॥
|| iti ṣaṣṭho'nuvākaḥ ||

It was the Sixth Chapter

7 Chapter

asadvā idamagra āsīt | tato vai sadajāyata |
tadātmānaɱ svayamakuruta |
tasmāttatsukṛtamucyata iti |

yadvai tat sukṛtam | raso vai saḥ |
rasaɱ hyevāyaṁ labdhvā''nandī bhavati | ko hyevānyātkaḥ
prāṇyāt | yadeṣa ākāśa ānando na syāt |
eṣa hyevā''nandayāti |
yadā hyevaiṣa etasminnadṛśye'nātmye'nirukte'nilayane'bhayaṁ

pratiṣṭhāṁ vindate | atha so'bhayaṁ gato bhavati |
yadā hyevaiṣa etasminnudaramantaraṁ kurute |
atha tasya bhayaṁ bhavati | tatveva bhayaṁ viduṣo'manvānasya |

In the beginning was verily this non-existent.
From that was generated the existent.
That made Its Self by Itself. Therefore it is called Self-made.
That one who is the self-made is verily the joy.
Having attained this joy, (man) becomes blessed.

Who would have lived and breathed, had not this sky of bliss existed.
This verily It is that bestows bliss.
When it finds in that invisible, unembodied,
unpredicated, abodeless (Ātman) the basis (of life), free from fear,
then verily It transcends (all) fear.
But when It makes (any) differentiation in It in the last degree,
then for It there is fear. For the unwise knower indeed, It is fear.

तदप्येष श्लोको भवति ॥ १ ॥

There is the following verse about it...

॥ इति सप्तमोऽनुवाकः ॥
|| iti saptamo'nuvākaḥ ||

It was the Seventh Chapter

8 Chapter

 

bhīṣā'smādvātaḥ pavate | bhīṣodeti sūryaḥ |
bhīṣā'smādagniścendraśca | mṛtyurdhāvati pañcama iti |
saiṣā''nandasya mīmāɱsā bhavati |
yuvā syātsādhuyuvā'dhyāyakaḥ |
āśiṣṭho dṛḍhiṣṭho baliṣṭhaḥ |
tasyeyaṁ pṛthivī sarvā vittasya pūrṇā syāt |
sa eko mānuṣa ānandaḥ | te ye śataṁ mānuṣā ānandāḥ || 1 ||

sa eko manuṣyagandharvāṇāmānandaḥ | śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya |
te ye śataṁ manuṣyagandharvāṇāmānandāḥ |

sa eko devagandharvāṇāmānandaḥ | śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya |
te ye śataṁ devagandharvāṇāmānandāḥ |
sa ekaḥ pitṛṇāṁ ciralokalokānāmānandaḥ |
śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya |
te ye śataṁ pitṛṇāṁ ciralokalokānāmānandāḥ |
sa eka ājānajānāṁ devānāmānandaḥ || 2 ||

śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya |
te ye śataṁ ājānajānāṁ devānāmānandāḥ |
sa ekaḥ karmadevānāṁ devānāmānandaḥ |
ye karmaṇā devānapiyanti | śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya |
te ye śataṁ karmadevānāṁ devānāmānandāḥ |
sa eko devānāmānandaḥ | śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya |
te ye śataṁ devānāmānandāḥ | sa eka indrasyā''nandaḥ || 3 ||

śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya | te ye śatamindrasyā''nandāḥ |
sa eko bṛhaspaterānandaḥ | śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya |
te ye śataṁ bṛhaspaterānandāḥ | sa ekaḥ prajāpaterānandaḥ |
śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya |

te ye śataṁ prajāpaterānandāḥ |
sa eko brahmaṇa ānandaḥ | śrotriyasya cākāmahatasya || 4 ||

sa yaścāyaṁ puruṣe | yaścāsāvāditye | sa ekaḥ |
sa ya evaṁvit | asmāllokātpretya |

etamannamayamātmānamupasaṅkrāmati |
etaṁ prāṇamayamātmānamupasaṅkrāmati |
etaṁ manomayamātmānamupasaṅkrāmati |

etaṁ vijñānamayamātmānamupasaṅkrāmati |
etamānandamayamātmānamupasaṅkrāmati |

From Its fear the wind blows; from fear rises the sun,
from the fear of It again Indra, Fire
and the fifth, Death, proceed (to their respective duties)

The following is the conclusive examination of bliss:

(Suppose) there be a youth, noble, well-versed in the scriptures,
full of hope, resolute and strong,
and if the whole world be full of wealth for him,
- that is the measure unit of human bliss.

A hundred-fold of that human bliss
is the unit measure of the bliss of human Gandharvas.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

A hundred-fold of the bliss of human Gandharvas
is the unit measure of the bliss of celestial Gandharvas.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

A hundred-fold of the bliss of celestial Gandharvas
is the unit measure of the bliss of the Manes
whose abode is the eternal heaven.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

A hundred-fold of the bliss of the Manes,
whose abode is the eternal heaven,
is the unit measure of the bliss of the Devas born in heaven.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

A hundred-fold of the bliss of the Devas born in heaven
is the unit measure of the bliss of gods known as Karma-devas
who have been exalted to the heaven by their sacrificial deeds.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

A hundred-fold of the bliss of the gods known as Karma-devas
is the unit measure of the bliss of the Devas.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

A hundred-fold of the bliss of the Devas
is the unit measure of the bliss of Indra.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

A hundred-fold of the bliss of Indra
is the unit measure of the bliss of Brihaspati.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

A hundred-fold of the bliss of Brihaspati
is the unit measure of the bliss of Prajāpati.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

A hundred-fold of the bliss of Prajāpati
is the unit measure of the bliss of Brahman.
And so also (is the bliss) of one
versed in the Vedas and unafflicted by desires.

He who is in man and He who is in the Sun – both are the same.

He who knows this, having departed from this world

(first) attains the Self consisting of Food,
(next) attains the Self consisting of the Prāṇas,
(again) attains the Self consisting of the Manas,
(again) attains the Self consisting of Buddhi
(and lastly) attains the Self consisting of Bliss.

तदप्येष श्लोको भवति ॥ ५ ॥
tadapyeṣa śloko bhavati || 5 ||

There is the following verse on this...

॥ इत्यष्टमोऽनुवाकः ॥
|| ityaṣṭamo'nuvākaḥ ||

It was the Eighth Chapter

9 Chapter

yato vāco nivartante | aprāpya manasā saha |

ānandaṁ brahmaṇo vidvān |
na bibheti kutaścaneti |
etaɱ ha vāva na tapati |
kimahaɱ sādhu nākaravam | kimahaṁ pāpamakaravamiti |

sa ya evaṁ vidvānete ātmānaɱ spṛṇute |
ubhe hyevaiṣa ete ātmānaɱ spṛṇute | ya evaṁ veda |
ityupaniṣat || 1 ||

Whence speech returns along with mind without reaching it,
- the knower of that bliss of Brahman fears naught.
Such (thoughts) certainly never distress him
that why he did not do the right, and why he did what is sinful.
He who thus knows them fosters his self;
verily, he fosters the self who knows these two in this way.

इत्युपनिषत् ॥ १ ॥
ityupaniṣat || 1 ||

Here ends the Upanishad.

॥ इति नवमोऽनुवाकः ॥
|| iti navamo'nuvākaḥ ||

It was the Ninth Chapter.

॥ इति ब्रह्मानन्दवल्ली समाप्ता ॥
|| iti brahmānandavallī samāptā ||

It was the Second Book called Brahmānanda Valli.