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YOGA SUTRAS

YOGA SUTRAS

Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali
योग सूत्रानि पतञ्जलि

Samādhi-Pāda

समाधिपाद

I. YOGA AND ITS AIMS

अथ योगानुशासनम् ॥१॥
atha yoga-anuśāsanam ||1||

This is the beginning of instruction in yoga.

योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः ॥२॥
yogaś-citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ ||2||

Yoga is the control of thought-waves in the mind.

तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् ॥३॥
tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe-'vasthānam ||3||

Then man abides in his real nature.

वृत्ति सारूप्यमितरत्र ॥४॥
vṛtti sārūpyam-itaratra ||4||

At other times, when he is not in the state of yoga, man remains identified with the thought-waves in the mind.

वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टाक्लिष्टाः ॥५॥
vṛttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭākliṣṭāḥ ||5||

There are five kinds of thought-waves---some painful, others not painful.

प्रमाण विपर्यय विकल्प निद्रा स्मृतयः ॥६॥
pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smṛtayaḥ ||6||

These five kinds of thought-waves are: right knowledge, wrong knowledge, verbal delusion, sleep and memory.

प्रत्यक्षानुमानागमाः प्रमाणानि ॥७॥
pratyakṣa-anumāna-āgamāḥ pramāṇāni ||7||

The right kinds of knowledge are: direct perception, inference and scriptural testimony.

विपर्ययो मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूप प्रतिष्ठम् ॥८॥
viparyayo mithyā-jñānam-atadrūpa pratiṣṭham ||8||

Wrong knowledge is knowledge which is false and not based upon the true nature of its object.

शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो विकल्पः ॥९॥
śabda-jñāna-anupātī vastu-śūnyo vikalpaḥ ||9||

Verbal delusion arises when words do not correspond to reality.

अभावप्रत्ययालम्बना तमोवृत्तिर्निद्र ॥१०॥
abhāva-pratyaya-ālambanā tamo-vṛttir-nidra ||10||

Sleep is a wave of thought about nothingness.

अनुभूतविषयासंप्रमोषः स्मृतिः ॥११॥
anu-bhūta-viṣaya-asaṁpramoṣaḥ smṛtiḥ ||11||

Memory is when perceived objects are not forgotten, but come back to consciousness.

अभ्यासवैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः ॥१२॥
abhyāsa-vairāgya-ābhyāṁ tan-nirodhaḥ ||12||

They are controlled by means of practice and non-attachment.

तत्र स्थितौ यत्नोऽभ्यासः ॥१३॥
tatra sthitau yatno-'bhyāsaḥ ||13||

Practice is the repeated effort to follow the disciplines which give permanent control of the thought-waves of the mind.

स तु दीर्घकाल नैरन्तर्य सत्कारादरासेवितो दृढभूमिः ॥१४॥
sa tu dīrghakāla nairantarya satkāra-ādara-āsevito dṛḍhabhūmiḥ ||14||

Practice becomes firmly grounded when it has been cultivated for a long time, uninterruptedly, with earnest devotion.

दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसंज्णा वैराग्यम् ॥१५॥
dṛṣṭa-anuśravika-viṣaya-vitṛṣṇasya vaśīkāra-saṁjṇā vairāgyam ||15||

Non-attachment is self-mastery; it is freedom from desire for what is seen or heard.

तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेः गुणवैतृष्ण्यम् ॥१६॥
tatparaṁ puruṣa-khyāteḥ guṇa-vaitṛṣṇyam ||16||

When, through knowledge of the Atman, one ceases to desire any manifestation of Nature, then that is the highest kind of non-attachment.

वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारुपानुगमात्संप्रज्ञातः ॥१७॥
vitarka-vicāra-ānanda-asmitā-rupa-anugamāt-saṁprajñātaḥ ||17||

Concentration upon a single object may reach four stages: examination, discrimination, joyful peace and simple awareness of individuality.

विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः ॥१८॥
virāma-pratyaya-abhyāsa-pūrvaḥ saṁskāra-śeṣo-'nyaḥ ||18||

The other kind of concentration is that 'in which the consciousness contains no object—only subconscious impressions, which are like burnt seeds. It is attained by constantly checking the thought-waves through the practice of non-attachment.

भवप्रत्ययो विदेहप्रकृतिलयानम् ॥१९॥
bhava-pratyayo videha-prakṛti-layānam ||19||

When such concentration is not accompanied by non -attachment, and ignorance therefore remains, the aspirant will reach the state of the disincarnate gods or become merged in the forces of Nature.

श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृति समाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम् ॥२०॥
śraddhā-vīrya-smṛti samādhi-prajñā-pūrvaka itareṣām ||20||

The concentration of the true spiritual aspirant is attained through faith, energy, recollectedness, absorption and illumination.

तीव्रसंवेगानामासन्नः ॥२१॥
tīvra-saṁvegānām-āsannaḥ ||21||

Success in yoga comes quickly to those who are intensely energetic.

मृदुमध्याधिमात्रत्वात्ततोऽपि विशेषः ॥२२॥
mṛdu-madhya-adhimātratvāt-tato'pi viśeṣaḥ ||22||

Success varies according to the means adopted to obtain it—mild, medium or intense.

ईश्वरप्रणिधानाद्वा ॥२३॥
īśvara-praṇidhānād-vā ||23||

Concentration may also be attained through devotion to Ishwara.

क्लेश कर्म विपाकाशयैःपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः ॥२४॥
kleśa karma vipāka-āśayaiḥ-aparāmṛṣṭaḥ puruṣa-viśeṣa īśvaraḥ ||24||

Ishwara is a special kind of Being, untouched by ignorance and the products of ignorance, not subject to karmas or saṁskāras or the results of action.

तत्र निरतिशयं सर्वज्ञबीजम् ॥२५॥
tatra niratiśayaṁ sarvajña-bījam ||25||

In Him, knowledge is infinite; in others it is only a germ.

स एष पूर्वेषामपिगुरुः कालेनानवच्छेदात् ॥२६॥
sa eṣa pūrveṣām-api-guruḥ kālena-anavacchedāt ||26||

He was the teacher even of the earliest teachers, since He is not limited by time.

तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः ॥२७॥
tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ ||27||

The word which express Him is OM.

तज्जपः तदर्थभावनम् ॥२८॥
taj-japaḥ tad-artha-bhāvanam ||28||

This word must be repeated with meditation upon its meaning.

ततः प्रत्यक्चेतनाधिगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभवश्च ॥२९॥
tataḥ pratyak-cetana-adhigamo-'py-antarāya-abhavaś-ca ||29||

Hence comes knowledge of the Atman and destruction of the obstacles to that knowledge.

व्याधि स्त्यान संशय प्रमादालस्याविरति भ्रान्तिदर्शनालब्धभूमिकत्वानवस्थितत्वानि चित्तविक्षेपाः ते अन्तरायाः ॥३०॥
vyādhi styāna saṁśaya pramāda-ālasya-avirati bhrāntidarśana-alabdha-bhūmikatva-anavasthitatvāni citta-vikṣepāḥ te antarāyāḥ ||30||

Sickness, mental laziness, doubt, lack of enthusiasm, sloth, craving for sense-pleasure, false perception, despair caused by failure to concentrate and unsteadiness in concentration: these distractions are the obstacles to knowledge.

दुःखदौर्मनस्याङ्गमेजयत्वश्वासप्रश्वासाः विक्षेप सहभुवः ॥३१॥
duḥkha-daurmanasya-aṅgamejayatva-śvāsapraśvāsāḥ vikṣepa sahabhuvaḥ ||31||

These distractions are accompanied by grief, despondency, trembling of the body and irregular breathing.

तत्प्रतिषेधार्थमेकतत्त्वाभ्यासः ॥३२॥
tat-pratiṣedha-artham-eka-tattva-abhyāsaḥ ||32||

They can be removed by the practice of concentration upon a single truth.

मैत्री करुणा मुदितोपेक्षाणांसुखदुःख पुण्यापुण्यविषयाणां भावनातः चित्तप्रसादनम् ॥३३॥
maitrī karuṇā mudito-pekṣāṇāṁ-sukha-duḥkha puṇya-apuṇya-viṣayāṇāṁ bhāvanātaḥ citta-prasādanam ||33||

Undisturbed calmness of mind is attained by cultivating friendliness toward the happy, compassion for the unhappy, delight in the virtuous, and indifference toward the wicked.

प्रच्छर्दनविधारणाभ्यां वा प्राणस्य ॥३४॥
pracchardana-vidhāraṇa-ābhyāṁ vā prāṇasya ||34||

The mind may also be calmed by expulsion and retention of the breath.

विषयवती वा प्रवृत्तिरुत्पन्ना मनसः स्थिति निबन्धिनी ॥३५॥
viṣayavatī vā pravṛtti-rutpannā manasaḥ sthiti nibandhinī ||35||

Those forms of concentration which result in extraordinary perceptions encourage perseverance of the mind.

विशोका वा ज्योतिष्मती ॥३६॥
viśokā vā jyotiṣmatī ||36||

Concentration may also be attained by fixing the mind upon the Inner Light, which is beyond sorrow.

वीतराग विषयम् वा चित्तम् ॥३७॥
vītarāga viṣayam vā cittam ||37||

Or by meditating on the heart of an illumined soul, that is free from passion.

स्वप्ननिद्रा ज्ञानालम्बनम् वा ॥३८॥
svapna-nidrā jñāna-ālambanam vā ||38||

Or by fixing the mind upon a dream experience, or the experience of deep sleep.

यथाभिमतध्यानाद्वा ॥३९॥
yathā-abhimata-dhyānād-vā ||39||

Or by fixing the mind upon any divine form or symbol that appeals to one as good.

परमाणु परममहत्त्वान्तोऽस्य वशीकारः ॥४०॥
paramāṇu parama-mahattva-anto-'sya vaśīkāraḥ ||40||

The mind of a yogi can concentrate upon any object of any size, from the atomic to the infinitely great.

क्षीणवृत्तेरभिजातस्येव मणेर्ग्रहीतृग्रहणग्राह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तिः ॥४१॥
kṣīṇa-vṛtter-abhijātasy-eva maṇer-grahītṛ-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu tatstha-tadañjanatā samāpattiḥ ||41||

Just as the pure crystal takes color from the object which is nearest to it, so the mind, when it is clear of thought-waves, achieves sameness or identity with the object of its concentration. This may be either a gross object, or the organ of perception, or the sense of ego. This achievement of sameness or identity with the object of concentration is known as samadhi.

तत्र शब्दार्थज्ञानविकल्पैः संकीर्णा सवितर्का समापत्तिः ॥४२॥
tatra śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpaiḥ saṁkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ ||42||

When the mind achieves identity with a gross object of concentration, mixed with awareness of name, quality and knowledge, this is called savitarka samadhi.

स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का ॥४३॥
smṛti-pariśuddhau svarūpa-śūnyeva-arthamātra-nirbhāsā nirvitarkā ||43||

When the mind achieves identity with a gross object of concentration, unmixed with awareness of name, quality and knowledge, so that the object alone remains, this is called nirvitarka samadhi.

एतयैव सविचारा निर्विचारा च सूक्ष्मविषय व्याख्याता ॥४४॥
etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣma-viṣaya vyākhyātā ||44||

When the object of concentration is a subtle object, two kinds of samadhi, called savichara and nirvichara, may be distinguished in the same manner.

सूक्ष्मविषयत्वम्चालिण्ग पर्यवसानम् ॥४५॥
sūkṣma-viṣayatvam-ca-aliṇga paryavasānam ||45||

Behind all subtle objects is Prakriti, the primal cause.

ता एव सबीजस्समाधिः ॥४६॥
tā eva sabījas-samādhiḥ ||46||

These kinds of samadhi are said to be "with seed."

निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः ॥४७॥
nirvicāra-vaiśāradye-'dhyātma-prasādaḥ ||47||

In reaching nirvichara samadhi the mind becomes pure.

ऋतंभरा तत्र प्रज्ञा ॥४८॥
ṛtaṁbharā tatra prajñā ||48||

In that samadhi, knowledge is said to be "filled with truth."

श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाभ्यामन्यविषया विशेषार्थत्वात् ॥४९॥
śruta-anumāna-prajñā-abhyām-anya-viṣayā viśeṣa-arthatvāt ||49||

The knowledge which is gained from inference and the study of scriptures is knowledge of one kind. But the knowledge which is gained from samadhi is of a much higher order. It goes beyond inference and scriptures.

तज्जस्संस्कारोऽन्यसंस्कार प्रतिबन्धी ॥५०॥
tajjas-saṁskāro-'nya-saṁskāra pratibandhī ||50||

The impression which is made upon the mind by that samadhi wipes out all other past impressions.

तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजः समाधिः ॥५१॥
tasyāpi nirodhe sarva-nirodhān-nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ ||51||

When the impression made by that samādhi - is also wiped out, so that there are no more thought-waves at all in the mind, then one enters the samadhi which is called "seedless."

साधनपाद

Sādhana-Pāda

II YOGA AND ITS PRACTICE

तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः ॥१॥
tapaḥ svādhyāy-eśvarapraṇidhānāni kriyā-yogaḥ ||1||

Austerity, study, and the dedication of the fruits of one's work to God: these are the preliminary steps toward yoga.

समाधिभावनार्थः क्लेश तनूकरणार्थश्च ॥२॥
samādhi-bhāvana-arthaḥ kleśa tanū-karaṇa-arthaś-ca ||2||

Thus we may cultivate the power of concentration and remove the obstacles to enlightenment which cause all our sufferings.

अविद्यास्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशः क्लेशाः ॥३॥
avidyā-asmitā-rāga-dveṣa-abhiniveśaḥ kleśāḥ ||3||

These obstacles—the causes of man's sufferings—are ignorance, egoism, attachment, aversion, and the desire to cling to life.

अविद्या क्षेत्रमुत्तरेषाम् प्रसुप्ततनुविच्छिन्नोदाराणाम् ॥४॥
avidyā kṣetram-uttareṣām prasupta-tanu-vicchinn-odārāṇām ||4||

Ignorance creates all the other obstacles. They may exist either in a potential or a vestigial form, or they may have been temporarily overcome or fully developed.

अनित्याशुचिदुःखानात्मसु नित्यशुचिसुखात्मख्यातिरविद्या ॥५॥
anityā-aśuci-duḥkha-anātmasu nitya-śuci-sukha-ātmakhyātir-avidyā ||5||

To regard the non-eternal as eternal, the impure as pure, the painful as pleasant and the non-Atman as the Atman – this is ignorance.

दृग्दर्शनशक्त्योरेकात्मतैवास्मिता ॥६॥
dṛg-darśana-śaktyor-ekātmata-iva-asmitā ||6||

To identify consciousness with that which merely reflects consciousness—this is egoism.

सुखानुशयी रागः ॥७॥
sukha-anuśayī rāgaḥ ||7||

Attachment is that which dwells upon pleasure.

दुःखानुशयी द्वेषः ॥८॥
duḥkha-anuśayī dveṣaḥ ||8||

Aversion is that which dwells upon pain.

स्वरस्वाहि विदुषोऽपि समारूढोऽभिनिवेशः ॥९॥
svarasvāhi viduṣo-'pi samārūḍho-'bhiniveśaḥ ||9||

The desire to cling to life is inherent both in the ignorant and in the learned. This is because the mind retains impressions of the death experience from many previous incarnations.

ते प्रतिप्रसवहेयाः सूक्ष्माः ॥१०॥
te pratiprasava-heyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ ||10||

When these obstacles have been reduced to a vestigial form, they can be destroyed by resolving the mind back into its primal cause.

ध्यान हेयाः तद्वृत्तयः ॥११॥
dhyāna heyāḥ tad-vṛttayaḥ ||11||

In their fully developed form, they can be overcome through meditation.

क्लेशमूलः कर्माशयो दृष्टादृष्टजन्मवेदनीयः ॥१२॥
kleśa-mūlaḥ karma-aśayo dṛṣṭa-adṛṣṭa-janma-vedanīyaḥ ||12||

A man's latent tendencies have been created by his past thoughts and actions. These tendencies will bear fruits, both in this life and in lives to come.

सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः ॥१३॥
sati mūle tad-vipāko jāty-āyur-bhogāḥ ||13||

So long as the cause exists, it will bear fruits---such as rebirth, a long or a short life, and the experiences of pleasure and of pain.

ते ह्लाद परितापफलाः पुण्यापुण्यहेतुत्वात् ॥१४॥
te hlāda paritāpa-phalāḥ puṇya-apuṇya-hetutvāt ||14||

Experiences of pleasure and of pain are the fruits of merit and demerit, respectively.

परिणाम ताप संस्कार दुःखैः गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच्च दुःखमेव सर्वं विवेकिनः ॥१५॥
pariṇāma tāpa saṁskāra duḥkhaiḥ guṇa-vṛtti-virodhācca duḥkham-eva sarvaṁ vivekinaḥ ||15||

But the man of spiritual discrimination regards all these experiences as painful. For even the enjoyment o present pleasure is painful, since we already fear it loss. Past pleasure is painful because renewed cravings arise from the impressions it has left upon the mind
And how can any happiness be lasting if it depends only upon our moods? For these moods are constantly changing, as one or another of the ever-warring gunas seizes control of the mind.

हेयं दुःखमनागतम्॥१६॥
heyaṁ duḥkham-anāgatam ||16||

The pain which is yet to come may be avoided.

द्रष्टृदृश्ययोः संयोगो हेयहेतुः ॥१७॥
draṣṭṛ-dṛśyayoḥ saṁyogo heyahetuḥ ||17||

This pain is caused by false identification of the experiencer with the object of experience. It may be avoided.

प्रकाशक्रियास्थितिशीलं भूतेन्द्रियात्मकं भोगापवर्गार्थं दृश्यम् ॥१८॥
prakāśa-kriyā-sthiti-śīlaṁ bhūtendriya-ātmakaṁ bhoga-apavarga-arthaṁ dṛśyam ||18||

The object of experience is composed of the three gunas—the principles of illumination (sattva), activity (rajas) and inertia (tamas). From these, the whole universe has evolved together with the instruments of knowledge—such as the mind, senses, etc.—and the objects perceived—such as the physical elements. The universe exists in order that the experiencer may experience it, and thus become liberated.

विशेषाविशेषलिङ्गमात्रालिङ्गानि गुणपर्वाणि ॥१९॥
viśeṣa-aviśeṣa-liṅga-mātra-aliṅgāni guṇaparvāṇi ||19||

The gunas pass through four states—gross, subtle, primal and unevolved.

द्रष्टा दृशिमात्रः शुद्धोऽपि प्रत्ययानुपश्यः ॥२०॥
draṣṭā dṛśimātraḥ śuddho-'pi pratyaya-anupaśyaḥ ||20||

The Atman—the experiencer—is pure consciousness. It appears to take on the changing colors of the mind. In reality, it is unchangeable.

तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा ॥२१॥
tadartha eva dṛśyasya-ātmā ||21||

The object of experience exists only to serve the purpose of the Atman.

कृतार्थं प्रतिनष्टंप्यनष्टं तदन्य साधारणत्वात् ॥२२॥
kṛtārthaṁ pratinaṣṭaṁ-apy-anaṣṭaṁ tadanya sādhāraṇatvāt ||22||

Though the object of experience becomes unreal to him who has reached the state of liberation, it remains real to all other beings.

स्वस्वामिशक्त्योः स्वरूपोप्लब्धिहेतुः संयोगः ॥२३॥
svasvāmi-śaktyoḥ svarūp-oplabdhi-hetuḥ saṁyogaḥ ||23||

The Atman—the experiencer—is identified with Prakriti—the object of experience--in order that the true nature of both Prakriti and Atman may be known.

तस्य हेतुरविद्या ॥२४॥
tasya hetur-avidyā ||24||

This identification is caused by ignorance.

तदभाबात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद्दृशेः कैवल्यम् ॥२५॥
tad-abhābāt-saṁyoga-abhāvo hānaṁ taddṛśeḥ kaivalyam ||25||

When ignorance has been destroyed, this identification ceases. Then bondage is at an end and the experiencer is independent and free.

विवेकख्यातिरविप्लवा हानोपायः ॥२६॥
viveka-khyātir-aviplavā hānopāyaḥ ||26||

Ignorance is destroyed by awakening to knowledge of the Atman, until no trace of illusion remains.

तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञ ॥२७॥
tasya saptadhā prānta-bhūmiḥ prajña ||27||

The experiencer gains this knowledge in seven stages, advancing toward the highest.

योगाङ्गानुष्ठानादशुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानदीप्तिराविवेकख्यातेः ॥२८॥
yoga-aṅga-anuṣṭhānād-aśuddhi-kṣaye jñāna-dīptir-āviveka-khyāteḥ ||28||

As soon as all impurities have been removed by the practice of spiritual disciplines—the "limbs" of yoga--a man's spiritual vision opens to the light-giving knowledge of the Atman.

यम नियमासन प्राणायाम प्रत्याहार धारणा ध्यान समाधयोऽष्टावङ्गानि ॥२९॥
yama niyama-āsana prāṇāyāma pratyāhāra dhāraṇā dhyāna samādhayo-'ṣṭāvaṅgāni ||29||

The eight limbs of yoga are: the various forms of abstention from evil-doing (yama), the various observances (niyamas), posture (asana), control of the prana (pranayams), withdrawal of the mind from sense objects (pratyahara), concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana) and absorption in the Atman (samadhi).

अहिंसासत्यास्तेय ब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहाः यमाः ॥३०॥
ahiṁsā-satya-asteya brahmacarya-aparigrahāḥ yamāḥ ||30||

Yama is abstention from harming others, from falsehood, from theft, from incontinence, and from greed.

जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमामहाव्रतम् ॥३१॥
jāti-deśa-kāla-samaya-anavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumā-mahāvratam ||31||

These forms of abstention are basic rules of conduct. They must be practised without any reservations as to time, place, purpose, or caste rules.

शौच संतोष तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः ॥३२॥
śauca saṁtoṣa tapaḥ svādhyāy-eśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ ||32||

The niyamas (observances) are purity, contentment, mortification, study and devotion to God.

वितर्कबाधने प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३३॥
vitarka-bādhane pratiprakṣa-bhāvanam ||33||

To be free from thoughts that distract one from yoga, thoughts of an opposite kind must be cultivated.

वितर्का हिंसादयः कृतकारितानुमोदिता लोभक्रोधमोहापूर्वका मृदुमध्य अधिमात्रा दुःखाज्ञानानन्तफला इति प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३४॥
vitarkā hiṁsādayaḥ kṛta-kārita-anumoditā lobha-krodha-moha-āpūrvakā mṛdu-madhya adhimātrā duḥkha-ajñāna-ananta-phalā iti pratiprakṣa-bhāvanam ||34||

The obstacles to yoga—such as acts of violence and untruth—may be directly created or indirectly caused or approved, they may be motivated by greed, anger or self-interest, they may be small or moderate or great, but they never cease to result in pain and ignorance. One should overcome distracting thoughts by remembering this.

अहिंसाप्रतिष्ठायं तत्सन्निधौ वैरत्याघः ॥३५॥
ahiṁsā-pratiṣṭhāyaṁ tat-sannidhau vairatyāghaḥ ||35||

When a man becomes steadfast in his abstention from harming others, then all living creatures will cease to feel enmity in his presence.

सत्यप्रतिष्थायं क्रियाफलाश्रयत्वम् ॥३६॥
satya-pratiṣthāyaṁ kriyā-phala-āśrayatvam ||36||

When a man becomes steadfast in his abstention from falsehood he gets the power of obtaining for himself and others the fruits of good deeds, without having to perform the deeds themselves.

अस्तेयप्रतिष्ठायां सर्वरत्नोपस्थानम् ॥३७॥
asteya-pratiṣṭhāyāṁ sarvaratn-opasthānam ||37||

When a man becomes steadfast in his abstention from theft, all wealth comes to him.

ब्रह्मचर्य प्रतिष्ठायां वीर्यलाभः ॥३८॥
brahma-carya pratiṣṭhāyāṁ vīrya-lābhaḥ ||38||

When a man becomes steadfast in his abstention from incontinence, he acquires spiritual energy.

अपरिग्रहस्थैर्ये जन्मकथंता संबोधः ॥३९॥
aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathaṁtā saṁbodhaḥ ||39||

When a man becomes steadfast in his abstention from greed, he gains knowledge of his past, present and future existences.

शौचात् स्वाङ्गजुगुप्सा परैरसंसर्गः ॥४०॥
śaucāt svāṅga-jugupsā parairasaṁsargaḥ ||40||

As the result of purity, there arises indifference toward the body and disgust for physical intercourse with others.

सत्त्वशुद्धिः सौमनस्यैकाग्र्येन्द्रियजयात्मदर्शन योग्यत्वानि च ॥४१॥
sattva-śuddhiḥ saumanasya-ikāgry-endriyajaya-ātmadarśana yogyatvāni ca ||41||

Moreover, one achieves purification of the heart, cheerfulness of mind, the power of concentration, control of the passions and fitness for vision of the Atman.

संतोषातनुत्तमस्सुखलाभः ॥४२॥
saṁtoṣāt-anuttamas-sukhalābhaḥ ||42||

As the result of contentment, one gains supreme happiness.

कायेन्द्रियसिद्धिरशुद्धिक्षयात् तपसः ॥४३॥
kāyendriya-siddhir-aśuddhi-kṣayāt tapasaḥ ||43||

As the result of modification, impurities are removed. Then special powers come to the body and the sense - organs.

स्वाध्यायादिष्टदेवता संप्रयोगः ॥४४॥
svādhyāyād-iṣṭa-devatā saṁprayogaḥ ||44||

As the result of study, one obtains the vision of that aspect of God which one has chosen to worship.

समाधि सिद्धिःीश्वरप्रणिधानात् ॥४५॥
samādhi siddhiḥ-īśvarapraṇidhānāt ||45||

As the result of devotion to God, one achieves samadhi.

स्थिरसुखमासनम् ॥४६॥
sthira-sukham-āsanam ||46||

Posture (asana) is to be seated in a position which is firm but relaxed.

प्रयत्नशैथिल्यानन्तसमापत्तिभ्याम् ॥४७॥
prayatna-śaithilya-ananta-samāpatti-bhyām ||47||

Posture becomes firm and relaxed through control of the natural tendencies of the body, and through meditation on the infinite.

ततो द्वङ्द्वानभिघातः ॥४८॥
tato dvaṅdva-an-abhighātaḥ ||48||

Thereafter, one is no longer troubled by the dualities of sense-experience.

तस्मिन् सति श्वासप्रश्वास्योर्गतिविच्छेदः प्राणायामः ॥४९॥
tasmin sati śvāsa-praśvāsyor-gati-vicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ ||49||

After mastering posture, one must practice control of the prana (pranayama) by stopping the motions of inhalation and exhalation.

बाह्याभ्यन्तरस्थम्भ वृत्तिः देशकालसन्ख्याभिः परिदृष्टो दीर्घसूक्ष्मः ॥५०॥
bāhya-ābhyantara-sthambha vṛttiḥ deśa-kāla-sankhyābhiḥ paridṛṣṭo dīrgha-sūkṣmaḥ ||50||

The breath may be stopped externally, or internally, or checked in mid-motion, and regulated according to place, time and a fixed number of moments, so that the stoppage is either protracted or brief.

बाह्याभ्यन्तर विषयाक्षेपी चतुर्थः ॥५१॥
bāhya-ābhyantara viṣaya-akṣepī caturthaḥ ||51||

The fourth kind of pranayama is the stoppage of the breath which is caused by concentration upon external or internal objects.

ततः क्षीयते प्रकाशावरणम् ॥५२॥
tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśa-āvaraṇam ||52||

As the result of this, the covering of the Inner Light is removed.

धारणासु च योग्यता मनसः ॥५३॥
dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ ||53||

The mind gains the power of concentration (dharana).

स्वविषयासंप्रयोगे चित्तस्य स्वरूपानुकारैवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः ॥५४॥
svaviṣaya-asaṁprayoge cittasya svarūpānukāra-iv-endriyāṇāṁ pratyāhāraḥ ||54||

When the mind is withdrawn from sense-objects, the sense-organs also withdraw themselves from their respective objects and thus are said to imitate the mind. This is known as pratyahara.

ततः परमावश्यता इन्द्रियाणाम् ॥५५॥
tataḥ paramā-vaśyatā indriyāṇām ||55||

Thence arises complete mastery over the senses.

विभूतिपाद

Vibhūti-Pāda

III. POWERS

देशबन्धः चित्तस्य धारणा ॥१॥
deśa-bandhaḥ cittasya dhāraṇā ||1||

Concentration (dharana) is holding the mind within a center of spiritual consciousness in the body, or fixing it on some divine form, either within the body or outside it.

तत्र प्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम्॥२॥
tatra pratyayaika-tānatā dhyānam ||2||

Meditation (dhyana) is an unbroken flow of thought toward the object of concentration.

तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासं स्वरूपशून्यमिवसमाधिः ॥३॥
tadeva-artha-mātra-nirbhāsaṁ svarūpa-śūnyam-iva-samādhiḥ ||3||

When, in meditation, the true nature of the object shines forth, not distorted by the mind of the perceiver, that is absorption (samadhi).

त्रयमेकत्र संयमः ॥४॥
trayam-ekatra saṁyamaḥ ||4||

When these three—concentration, meditation and absorption—are brought to bear upon one subject, they are called samyama.

तज्जयात् प्रज्ञालोकः ॥५॥
tajjayāt prajñālokaḥ ||5||

Through mastery of samyama comes the light of knowledge.

तस्य भूमिषु विनियोगः ॥६॥
tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ ||6||

It must be applied stage by stage.

त्रयमन्तरन्गं पूर्वेभ्यः ॥७॥
trayam-antarangaṁ pūrvebhyaḥ ||7||

These three are more direct aids to experience than the five limbs previously described.

तदपि बहिरङ्गं निर्बीजस्य ॥८॥
tadapi bahiraṅgaṁ nirbījasya ||8||

But even these are not direct aids to the seedless samadhi.

व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोः अभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षण चित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः ॥९॥
vyutthāna-nirodha-saṁskārayoḥ abhibhava-prādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇa cittānvayo nirodha-pariṇāmaḥ ||9||

When the vision of the lower samadhi is suppressed by an act of conscious control, so that there are no longer any thoughts or visions in the mind, that is the achievement of control of the thought-waves of the mind.

तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारत् ॥१०॥
tasya praśānta-vāhitā saṁskārat ||10||

When this suppression of thought-waves becomes continuous, the mind's flow is calm.

सर्वार्थता एकाग्रातयोः क्षयोदयौ चित्तस्य समाधिपरिणामः ॥११॥
sarvārthatā ekāgrātayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhi-pariṇāmaḥ ||11||

When all mental distractions disappear and the mind becomes one-pointed, it enters the state called samadhi.

ततः पुनः शातोदितौ तुल्यप्रत्ययौ चित्तस्यैकाग्रतापरिणामः ॥१२॥
tataḥ punaḥ śātoditau tulya-pratyayau cittasya-ikāgratā-pariṇāmaḥ ||12||

The mind becomes one-pointed when similar thoughtwaves arise in succession without any gaps between them.

एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्था परिणामा व्याख्याताः ॥१३॥
etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharma-lakṣaṇa-avasthā pariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ ||13||

In this state, it passes beyond the three kinds of changes which take place in subtle or gross matter, and in the organs: change of form, change of time and change of condition.

शानोदिताव्यपदेश्यधर्मानुपाती धर्मी ॥१४॥
śān-odita-avyapadeśya-dharmānupātī dharmī ||14||

A compound object has attributes and is subject to change, either past, present or yet to be manifested.

क्रमान्यत्वं परिणामान्यतेवे हेतुः ॥१५॥
kramānyatvaṁ pariṇāmānyateve hetuḥ ||15||

The succession of these changes is the cause of manifold evolution.

परिणामत्रयसंयमाततीतानागत ज्ञानम् ॥१६॥
pariṇāmatraya-saṁyamāt-atītānāgata jñānam ||16||

By making samyama on the three kinds of changes, one obtains knowledge of past and the future.

शब्दार्थप्रत्ययामामितरेतराध्यासात्संकरः तत्प्रविभागसंयमात् सर्वभूतरुतज्ञानम् ॥१७॥
śabdārtha-pratyayāmām-itaretarādhyāsāt-saṁkaraḥ tat-pravibhāga-saṁyamāt sarvabhūta-ruta-jñānam ||17||

By making samyama on the sound of a word, one's perception of its meaning, and one's reaction to it--three things which are ordinarily confused—one obtains understanding of all sounds uttered by living beings.

संस्कारसाक्षात्करणात् पूर्वजातिज्ञानम् ॥१८॥
saṁskāra-sākṣātkaraṇāt pūrva-jāti-jñānam ||18||

By making samyama on previous thought-waves, one obtains knowledge of one's past lives.

प्रत्ययस्य परचित्तज्ञानम् ॥१९॥
pratyayasya para-citta-jñānam ||19||

By making samyama on the distinguishing marks of another man's body, one obtains knowledge of the nature of his mind.

न च तत् सालम्बनं तस्याविषयी भूतत्वात् ॥२०॥
na ca tat sālambanaṁ tasya-aviṣayī bhūtatvāt ||20||

But not of its contents, because that is not the object of the samyama.

कायरूपसंयमात् तत्ग्राह्यशक्तिस्तम्भे चक्षुः प्रकाशासंप्रयोगेऽन्तर्धानम् ॥२१॥
kāya-rūpa-saṁyamāt tat-grāhyaśakti-stambhe cakṣuḥ prakāśāsaṁprayoge-'ntardhānam ||21||

If one makes samyama on the form of one's body obstructing its perceptibility and separating its power of manifestation from the eyes of the beholder, than one's body becomes invisible.

एतेन शब्दाद्यन्तर्धानमुक्तम्॥२२॥
etena śabdādyantardhānamuktam ||22||

Thus, also, its sounds cease to be heard.

सोपक्रमं निरुपक्रमं च कर्म तत्संयमातपरान्तज्ञानम् अरिष्टेभ्यो वा ॥२३॥
sopa-kramaṁ nirupa-kramaṁ ca karma tatsaṁyamāt-aparāntajñānam ariṣṭebhyo vā ||23||

By making samyama on two kinds of karma--which will soon bear fruit and that which will not bring fruit until later—or by recognizing the portent of death, a yogi may know the exact time of his separation from the body.

मैत्र्यदिषु बलानि ॥२४॥
maitry-adiṣu balāni ||24||

By making samyama on friendliness, compassion, etc., one develops the powers of these qualities.

बलेषु हस्तिबलादीनी ॥२५॥
baleṣu hastibalādīnī ||25||

By making samyama on any kind of strength, such as that of the elephant, one obtains that strength.

प्रवृत्त्यालोकन्यासात् सूक्ष्माव्यावहितविप्रकृष्टज्ञानम् ॥२६॥
pravṛtty-āloka-nyāsāt sūkṣmā-vyāvahita-viprakṛṣṭa-jñānam ||26||

By making samyama on the Inner Light one obtains knowledge of what is subtle, hidden, or far distant.

भुवज्ञानं सूर्येसंयमात् ॥२७॥
bhuva-jñānaṁ sūrye-saṁyamāt ||27||

By making samyama on the sun, one gains knowledge of the cosmic spaces.

चन्द्रे तारव्यूहज्ञानम् ॥२८॥
candre tāravyūha-jñānam ||28||

By making samyama on the moon, one gains knowledge of the arrangement of the stars.

ध्रुवे तद्गतिज्ञानम् ॥२९॥
dhruve tadgati-jñānam ||29||

By making samyama on the polestar, one gains knowledge of the motions of the stars.

नाभिचक्रे कायव्यूहज्ञानम् ॥३०॥
nābhicakre kāyavyūha-jñānam ||30||

By making samyama on the navel, one gains knowledge of the constitution of the body.

कन्ठकूपे क्षुत्पिपासा निवृत्तिः ॥३१॥
kanṭha-kūpe kṣutpipāsā nivṛttiḥ ||31||

By making samyama on the hollow of the throat, one stills hunger and thirst.

कूर्मनाड्यां स्थैर्यम् ॥३२॥
kūrma-nāḍyāṁ sthairyam ||32||

By making samyama on the tube within the chest, one acquires absolute motionlessness.

मूर्धज्योतिषि सिद्धदर्शनम् ॥३३॥
mūrdha-jyotiṣi siddha-darśanam ||33||

By making samyama on the radiance within the back of the head, one becomes able to see the celestial beings.

प्रातिभाद्वा सर्वम् ॥३४॥
prātibhād-vā sarvam ||34||

All these powers of knowledge may also come to one whose mind is spontaneously enlightened through purity.

ह्र्डये चित्तसंवित् ॥३५॥
hrḍaye citta-saṁvit ||35||

By making samyama on the heart, one gains knowledge of the contents of the mind.

सत्त्वपुरुषायोः अत्यन्तासंकीर्णयोः प्रत्ययाविशेषोभोगः परार्थत्वात्स्वार्थसंयमात् पुरुषज्ञानम् ॥३६॥
sattva-puruṣāyoḥ atyantā-saṁkīrṇayoḥ pratyayāviśeṣo-bhogaḥ para-arthat-vāt-sva-arthasaṁyamāt puruṣa-jñānam ||36||

The power of enjoyment arises from a failure to discriminate between the Atman and the sattva guṇa, which are totally different. The sattva guṇa is merely the agent of the Atman, which is independent, existing only for its own sake. By making samyama on the independence of the Atman, one gains knowledge of the Atman.

ततः प्रातिभस्रावाणवेदनादर्शास्वादवार्ता जायन्ते ॥३७॥
tataḥ prātibha-srāvāṇa-vedana-ādarśa-āsvāda-vārtā jāyante ||37||

Hence one gains the knowledge due to spontaneous enlightenment, and obtains supernatural powers of hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell.

ते समाधवुपसर्गाव्युत्थाने सिद्धयः ॥३८॥
te samādhav-upasargā-vyutthāne siddhayaḥ ||38||

They are powers in the worldly state, but they are obstacles to samadhi.

बद्न्हकारणशैथिल्यात् प्रचारसंवेदनाच्च चित्तस्य परशरीरावेशः ॥३९॥
badnha-kāraṇa-śaithilyāt pracāra-saṁvedanācca cittasya paraśarīrāveśaḥ ||39||

When the bonds of the mind caused by karma have been loosened, the yogi can enter into the body of another by knowledge of the operation of its nerve - currents.

उदानजयाअत् जलपण्खकण्टकादिष्वसङ्गोऽत्क्रान्तिश्च ॥४०॥
udāna-jayāat jala-paṇkha-kaṇṭakādiṣv-asaṅgo-'tkrāntiśca ||40||

By controlling the nerve-currents that govern the lungs and the upper part of the body, the yogi can walk on water and swamps, or on thorns and similar objects, and he can die at will.

समानजयाज्ज्वलनम् ॥४१॥
samāna-jayāj-jvalanam ||41||

By controlling the force which governs the prana, he can surround himself with a blaze of light.

श्रोत्राकाशयोः संबन्धसंयमात् दिव्यं श्रोत्रम् ॥४२॥
śrotra-ākāśayoḥ saṁbandha-saṁyamāt divyaṁ śrotram ||42||

By making samyama on the relation between the ear and the ether, one obtains supernatural powers of hearing.

कायाकाशयोः संबन्धसंयमात् लघुतूलसमापत्तेश्चाकाश गमनम् ॥४३॥
kāyākāśayoḥ saṁbandha-saṁyamāt laghu-tūla-samāpatteśca-ākāśa gamanam ||43||

By making samyama on the relation between the body and the ether, or by acquiring through meditation the lightness of cotton fibre, the yogi can fly through the air.

बहिरकल्पिता वृत्तिः महाविदेहा ततः प्रकाशावरणक्षयः ॥४४॥
bahir-akalpitā vṛttiḥ mahā-videhā tataḥ prakāśa-āvaraṇa-kṣayaḥ ||44||

By making samyama on the thought-waves of the mind when it is separated from the body—the state known as the Great Disincarnation- all coverings can be removed from the light of knowledge.

स्थूलस्वरूपसूक्ष्मान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमात् भूतजयः ॥४५॥
sthūla-svarūpa-sūkṣma-anvaya-arthavattva-saṁyamāt bhūtajayaḥ ||45||

By making samyama on the gross and subtle forms of the elements, on their essential characteristics and the inherence of the gunas in them, and on the experiences they provide for the individual, one gains mastery of the elements.

ततोऽणिमादिप्रादुर्भावः कायसंपत् तद्धरानभिघात्श्च ॥४६॥
tato-'ṇimādi-prādurbhāvaḥ kāyasaṁpat tad-dharānabhighātśca ||46||

Hence one gains the power of becoming as tiny as an atom and all similar powers: also perfection of the body, which is no longer subject to the obstruction of the elements.

रूपलावण्यबलवज्रसंहननत्वानि कायसंपत् ॥४७॥
rūpa-lāvaṇya-bala-vajra-saṁhananatvāni kāyasaṁpat ||47||

Perfection of the body includes beauty, grace, strength and the hardness of a thunderbolt.

ग्रहणस्वरूपास्मितावयार्थवत्त्वसंयमातिन्द्रिय जयः ॥४८॥
grahaṇa-svarūpa-asmitā-avaya-arthavattva-saṁyamāt-indriya jayaḥ ||48||

By making samyama on the transformation that the sense-organs undergo when they contact objects, on the power of illumination of the sense-organs, on the ego-sense, on the gunas which constitute the organs, and on the experiences they provide for the individual, one gains mastery of the organs.

ततो मनोजवित्वं विकरणभावः प्रधानजयश्च ॥४९॥
tato mano-javitvaṁ vikaraṇa-bhāvaḥ pradhāna-jayaś-ca ||49||

Hence the body gains the power of movement as rapid as that of the mind, the power of using the sense-organs outside the confines of the body, and the mastery of Prakriti.

सत्त्वपुरुषान्यताख्यातिमात्रस्य सर्वभावाधिष्ठातृत्वं सर्वज्ञातृत्वं च ॥५०॥
sattva-puruṣa-anyatā-khyātimātrasya sarva-bhāvā-adhiṣṭhātṛtvaṁ sarva-jñātṛtvaṁ ca ||50||

By making samyama on the discrimination between the sattva guṇa and the Atman, one gains omnipotence and omniscience.

तद्वैराग्यादपि दोषबीजक्षये कैवल्यम् ॥५१॥
tad-vairāgyād-api doṣa-bīja-kṣaye kaivalyam ||51||

By giving up even these powers, the seed of evil is destroyed and liberation follows.

स्थान्युपनिमन्त्रणे सङ्गस्मयाकरणं पुनरनिष्टप्रसङ्गात् ॥५२॥
sthāny-upa-nimantraṇe saṅga-smaya-akaraṇaṁ punar-aniṣṭa-prasaṅgāt ||52||

When tempted by the invisible beings in high places, let the yogi feel neither allured nor flattered; for he is in danger of being caught once more by ignorance.

क्षणतत्क्रमयोः संयमात् विवेकजंज्ञानम् ॥५३॥
kṣaṇa-tat-kramayoḥ saṁyamāt vivekajaṁ-jñānam ||53||

By making samyama on single moments and on their sequence in time, one gains discriminative knowledge.

जातिलक्षणदेशैः अन्यतानवच्छेदात् तुल्ययोः ततः प्रतिपत्तिः ॥५४॥
jāti-lakṣaṇa-deśaiḥ anyatā-anavacchedāt tulyayoḥ tataḥ pratipattiḥ ||54||

Thus one is able to distinguish between two exactly similar objects, which cannot be distinguished by their species, characteristic marks, or positions in space.

तारकं सर्वविषयं सर्वथाविषयमक्रमंचेति विवेकजं ज्ञानम् ॥५५॥
tārakaṁ sarva-viṣayaṁ sarvathā-viṣayam-akramaṁ-ceti vivekajaṁ jñānam ||55||

This discriminative knowledge delivers a man from the bondage of ignorance. It comprehends all objects simultaneously, at every moment of their existence and in all their modifications.

सत्त्वपुरुषयोः शुद्धिसाम्ये कैवल्यम् ॥५६॥
sattva-puruṣayoḥ śuddhisāmye kaivalyam ||56||

Perfection is attained when the mind becomes as pure as the Atman itself.

कैवल्यपाद

Kaivalya-Pāda

IV. LIBERATION

जन्मौषधिमन्त्रतपःसमाधिजाः सिद्धयः॥१॥
Janmauṣadhimantratapaḥsamādhijāḥ siddhayaḥ||1||

The psychic powers may be obtained either by birth, or by means of drugs, or by the power of words, or by the practice of austerities, or by concentration.

जात्यन्तरपरिणामः प्रकृत्यापूरात्॥२॥
Jātyantarapariṇāmaḥ prakṛtyāpūrāt||2||

The transformation of one species into another is caused by the inflowing of nature.

निमित्तमप्रयोजकं प्रकृतीनां वरणभेदस्तु ततः क्षेत्रिकवत्॥३॥
Nimittamaprayojakaṁ prakṛtīnāṁ varaṇabhedastu tataḥ kṣetrikavat||3||

Good or bad deeds are not the direct causes of the transformation. They only act as breakers of the obstacles to natural evolution; just as a farmer breaks down the obstacles in a water course, so that water flows through by its own nature.

निर्माणचित्तान्यस्मितामात्रात्॥४॥
Nirmāṇacittānyasmitāmātrāt||4||

The ego-sense alone can create minds.

प्रवृत्तिभेदे प्रयोजकं चित्तमेकमनेकेषाम्॥५॥
Pravṛttibhede prayojakaṁ cittamekamanekeṣām||5||

Though the activities of the different created minds are various, the one original mind controls them all.

तत्र ध्यानजमनाशयम्॥६॥
Tatra dhyānajamanāśayam||6||

Of the various types of mind, only that which is purified by samadhi is freed from all latent impressions of karma and from all cravings.

कर्माशुक्लाकृष्णं योगिनस्त्रिविधमितरेषाम्॥७॥
Karmāśuklākṛṣṇaṁ yoginastrividhamitareṣām||7||

The karma of the yogi is neither white nor black. The karma of others is of three kinds: white, black, or mixed,

ततस्तद्विपाकानुगुणानामेवाभिव्यक्तिर्वासनानाम्॥८॥
Tatastadvipākānuguṇānāmevābhivyaktirvāsanānām||8||

Of the tendencies produced by these three kinds of karma, only those are manifested for which the conditions are favourable.

जातिदेशकालव्यवहितानामप्यानन्तर्यं स्मृतिसंस्कारयोरेकरूपत्वात्॥९॥
Jātideśakālavyavahitānāmapyānantaryaṁ smṛtisaṁskārayorekarūpatvāt||9||

Because of our memory of past tendencies, the chain of cause and effect is not broken by change of species, space or time.

तासामनादित्वं चाशिषो नित्यत्वात्॥१०॥
Tāsāmanāditvaṁ cāśiṣo nityatvāt||10||

Since the desire to exist has always been present our tendencies cannot have had any beginning.

हेतुफलाश्रयालम्बनैः सङ्गृहीतत्वादेषामभावे तदभावः॥११॥
Hetuphalāśrayālambanaiḥ saṅgṛhītatvādeṣāmabhāve tadabhāvaḥ||11||

Our subconscious tendencies depend upon cause and effect. They have their basis in the mind, and they are stimulated by the sense-objects. If all these are removed, the tendencies are destroyed.

अतीतानागतं स्वरूपतोऽस्त्यध्वभेदाद्धर्माणाम्॥१२॥
Atītānāgataṁ svarūpato'styadhvabhedāddharmāṇām||12||

There is the form and expression we call "past," and the form and expression we call "future"; both exist within the object, at all times. Form and expression vary according to time—past, present or future.

ते व्यक्तसूक्ष्मा गुणात्मानः॥१३॥
Te vyaktasūkṣmā guṇātmānaḥ||13||

They are either manifest or subtle, according to the nature of the gunas.

परिणामैकत्वाद्वस्तुतत्त्वम्॥१४॥
Pariṇāmaikatvādvastutattvam||14||

Since the gunas work together within every change of form and expression, there is a unity in all things.

वस्तुसाम्ये चित्तभेदात्तयोर्विभक्तः पन्थाः॥१५॥
Vastusāmye cittabhedāttayorvibhaktaḥ panthāḥ||15||

The same object is perceived in different ways by different minds. Therefore the mind must be other than the object.

न चैकचित्ततन्त्रं वस्तु तदप्रमाणकं तदा किं स्यात्॥१६॥
Na caikacittatantraṁ vastu tadapramāṇakaṁ tadā kiṁ syāt||16||

The object cannot be said to be dependent on the perception of a single mind. For, if this were the case, the object could be said to be non-existent when that single mind did not perceive it.

तदुपरागापेक्षित्वाच्चित्तस्य वस्तु ज्ञाताज्ञातम्॥१७॥
Taduparāgāpekṣitvāccittasya vastu jñātājñātam||17||

An object is known or unknown, depending upon the moods of the mind.

सदा ज्ञाताश्चित्तवृत्तयस्तत्प्रभोः पुरुषस्यापरिणामित्वात्॥१८॥
Sadā jñātāścittavṛttayastatprabhoḥ puruṣasyāpariṇāmitvāt||18||

Because the Atman, the Lord of the mind, is unchangeable, the mind's fluctuations are always known to it.

न तत्स्वाभासं दृश्यत्वात्॥१९॥
Na tatsvābhāsaṁ dṛśyatvāt||19||

The mind is not self-luminous, since it is an object of perception.

एकसमये चोभयानवधारणम्॥२०॥
Ekasamaye cobhayānavadhāraṇam||20||

And since it cannot perceive both subject and object simultaneously.

चित्तान्तरदृश्ये बुद्धिबुद्धेरतिप्रसङ्गः स्मृतिसङ्करश्च॥२१॥
Cittāntaradṛśye buddhibuddheratiprasaṅgaḥ smṛtisaṅkaraśca||21||

If one postulates a second mind to perceive the first, then one would have to postulate an infinite number of minds; and this would cause confusion of memory.

चितेरप्रतिसङ्क्रमायास्तदाकारापत्तौ स्वबुद्धिसंवेदनम्॥२२॥
Citerapratisaṅkramāyāstadākārāpattau svabuddhisaṁvedanam||22||

The pure consciousness of the Atman is unchangeable. As the reflection of its consciousness falls upon the mind, the mind takes the form of the Atman and appears to be conscious.

द्रष्टृदृश्योपरक्तं चित्तं सर्वार्थम्॥२३॥
Draṣṭṛdṛśyoparaktaṁ cittaṁ sarvārtham||23||

The mind is able to perceive because it reflects both the Atman and the objects of perception.

तदसङ्ख्येयवासनाभिश्चित्रमपि परार्थं संहत्यकारित्वात्॥२४॥
Tadasaṅkhyeyavāsanābhiścitramapi parārthaṁ saṁhatyakāritvāt||24||

Though the mind has innumerable impressions and desires, it acts only to serve another, the Atman; for, being a compound substance, it cannot act independently, and for its own sake.

विशेषदर्शिन आत्मभावभावनाविनिवृत्तिः॥२५॥
Viśeṣadarśina ātmabhāvabhāvanāvinivṛttiḥ||25||

The man of discrimination ceases to regard the mind as the Atman.

तदा विवेकनिम्नङ्कैवल्यप्राग्भारञ्चित्तम्॥२६॥
Tadā vivekanimnaṅkaivalyaprāgbhārañcittam||26||

When the mind is bent on the practice of discrimination, it moves toward liberation.

तच्छिद्रेषु प्रत्ययान्तराणि संस्कारेभ्यः॥२७॥
Tacchidreṣu pratyayāntarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ||27||

Distractions due to past impressions may arise if the mind relaxes its discrimination, even a little.

हानमेषां क्लेशवदुक्तम्॥२८॥
Hānameṣāṁ kleśavaduktam||28||

They may be overcome in the same manner as the obstacles to enlightenment.

प्रसङ्ख्यानेऽप्यकुसीदस्य सर्वथा विवेकख्यातेर्धर्ममेघः समाधिः॥२९॥
Prasaṅkhyāne'pyakusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāterdharmameghaḥ samādhiḥ||29||

He who remains undistracted even when he is in possession of all the psychic powers, achieves, as the result of perfect discrimination, that samadhi which is called the "cloud of virtue".

ततः क्लेशकर्मनिवृत्तिः॥३०॥
Tataḥ kleśakarmanivṛttiḥ||30||

Thence come cessation of ignorance, the cause of suffering, and freedom from the power of karma.

तदा सर्वावरणमलापेतस्य ज्ञानस्यानन्त्याज्ज्ञेयमल्पम्॥३१॥
Tadā sarvāvaraṇamalāpetasya jñānasyānantyājjñeyamalpam||31||

Then the whole universe, with all its objects of sense-knowledge, becomes as nothing in comparison to that infinite knowledge which is free from all obstructions and impurities.

ततः कृतार्थानां परिणामक्रमसमाप्तिर्गुणानाम्॥३२॥
Tataḥ kṛtārthānāṁ pariṇāmakramasamāptirguṇānām||32||

Then the sequence of mutations of the gunas comes to an end, for they have fulfilled their purpose.

क्षणप्रतियोगी परिणामापरान्तनिर्ग्राह्यः क्रमः॥३३॥
Kṣaṇapratiyogī pariṇāmāparāntanirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ||33||

This is the sequence of the mutations which take place at every moment, but which are only perceived at the end of a series.

पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति॥३४॥
Puruṣārthaśūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpapratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti||34||

Since the gunas no longer have any purpose to serve for the Atman, they resolve themselves into Prakriti. This is liberation. The Atman shines forth in its own pristine nature, as pure consciousness.